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Translation and Validation of the Arabic Version of the Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire

Ahmed S. Alhowimel, Aqeel M. Alenazi, Mohammed M. Alshehri, Bader A. Alqahtani, Abdulaziz Aljaman, Hosam Alzahrani, Faris Alodaibi, and Simon M. Rice

Context: The international sports community is becoming more proactive in clinical mental health practice and research. An athlete-specific psychological distress screening tool can identify potential mental health illness. Design: The Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ) is a simple screening tool for detecting early signs of athlete-specific strain and related mental health concerns. Methods: We evaluated the internal consistency and reliability of the translated and culturally adjusted Arabic version of the APSQ (APSQ-Ar) with Arabic-speaking elite athletes. The final translation underwent standard forward and backward translation, an inspection by a team of experts, and then preliminary testing. The APSQ-Ar was cross-culturally validated and then assessed for internal consistency and reliability among (n = 98) Arabic-speaking athletes. Results: There were no problems with the patients’ understanding or interpretation of the items on the APSQ-Ar translation. The intraclass correlation value was .93 (95% confidence interval, .89–.95), and the mean difference was 2.4 with a minimal detectable change of 5.12, demonstrating strong test–retest reliability. Moreover, Cronbach alpha showed excellent internal consistency (.76). Conclusions: The APSQ-Ar was demonstrated to be good, reliable, and internally consistent. With APSQ-Ar, sports medicine professionals in Arabic-speaking countries will be able to identify psychological distress and symptoms in athletes and, as a result, provide them with mental health support.

Open access

Self-Compassionate Motivation and Athlete Well-Being: The Critical Role of Distress Tolerance

Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.