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Virginie Nicaise, Noe C. Crespo and Simon Marshall

Background:

Even when objective physical activity (PA) measures are preferred, many intervention studies with Latina women rely on self-reports because they are more feasible and the type and domain of PA is of interest.

Purpose:

This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ for detecting intervention-related changes in physical activity compared with accelerometer measurement among Latinas.

Methods:

In March 2007, a community sample of 94 women (mean age = 36.31 ± 9.1 yr; mean body mass index = 31.37 ± 7.13) participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention to increase moderate intensity physical activity (MPA). Participants completed the Spanish-language International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Sp-IPAQ; telephone, long form) and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and postintervention.

Results:

Both the IPAQ and the ActiGraph accelerometer detected intervention-related increases in MPA; however, these changes were largely uncorrelated. The IPAQ did not have acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity before and after the intervention when compared with objective assessments.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ with Spanish-speaking participants and further research is needed to accurately measure intervention effectiveness using self-reports of PA in Latinas.

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Virginie Nicaise, Simon Marshall and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

Evidence suggests that Latina women appear to be less physically active than women of other racial/ethnic groups. This study evaluated how different domains of physical activity (PA) contributed to overall levels of PA among low-income Latinas, the validity of Latinas’ self-reported PA, and potential moderators of self-report bias in PA.

Methods:

A community sample of 105 Latinas (mean age = 35.9 ± 9.0 years; mean body mass index = 31.6 ± 7.2) completed the long form Spanish-language version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), wore an accelerometer for seven days, and completed self-reported measures of acculturation and socioeconomic status.

Results:

Ninety-six percent of IPAQ-reported moderate-intensity PA (MPA) was accrued during household activities, with only 4% accrued during leisure time. Seventy-two percent of participants met national recommendations for PA using IPAQ data, but only 20% met recommendations when measured by accelerometer. When bouts of MPA lasting >10 min were included, 0% met recommendations. Age appeared to moderate self-report bias of vigorous PA, and there were nonsignificant trends for acculturation and income to moderate MPA and vigorous-intensity PA, respectively.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to measure household activity of Latinas, and that the IPAQ yield overestimates of self-report PA.

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Trish Gorely, Stuart Biddle, Simon Marshall, Noel Cameron and Louise Cassey

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between distance to school and levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in UK adolescents. Participants were 1385 adolescents (boys n = 531; mean age 14.7 years). Boys living within two miles of school and girls living within 5 miles of school were more likely to report high levels (≥60 min per day) of weekday leisure time physical activity. Differences in weekday leisure time physical activity were accounted for by active travel time. There were no differences in sedentary behavior time by distance to school. Journeys, whether active or motorized, most often took place with friends. Further research should investigate wider physical and social environmental influences on active travel.

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Tracy Hoos, Nancy Espinoza, Simon Marshall and Elva M. Arredondo

Background:

Valid and reliable self-report measures of physical activity (PA) are needed to evaluate the impact of interventions aimed at increasing the levels of PA. However, few valid measures for assessing PA in Latino populations exist.

Objective:

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the GPAQ is a valid measure of PA among Latinas and to examine its sensitivity to intervention change. Intervention attendance was also examined.

Methods:

Baseline and postintervention data were collected from 72 Latinas (mean age = 43.01; SD = 9.05) who participated in Caminando con Fe/Walking with Faith, a multilevel intervention promoting PA among church-going Latinas. Participants completed the GPAQ and were asked to wear the accelerometer for 7 consecutive days at baseline and again 6 months later. Accelerometer data were aggregated into 5 levels of activity intensity (sedentary, light, moderate, moderate-vigorous, and vigorous) and correlated to self-reported mean minutes of PA across several domains (leisure time, work, commute and household chores).

Results:

There were significant correlations at postintervention between self-reported minutes per week of vigorous LTPA and accelerometer measured vigorous PA (r = .404, P < .001) as well as significant correlations of sensitivity to intervention change (post intervention minus baseline) between self-reported vigorous LTPA and accelerometer-measured vigorous PA (r = .383, P < .003) and self-reported total vigorous PA and accelerometer measured vigorous PA (r = .363, P < .003).

Conclusions:

The findings from this study suggest that the GPAQ may be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of programs aimed at increasing vigorous levels of PA among Latinas.

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Elva M. Arredondo, Tamar Mendelson, Christina Holub, Nancy Espinoza and Simon Marshall

Context:

The validity of physical activity (PA) self-report measures can be a problem when using these measures with target populations that differ from the population for which the measures were originally developed.

Objectives:

Describe an approach to further tailor PA self-report measures to a target community, and report on focus group and cognitive interview findings.

Process:

Topics relevant to culturally tailoring measures are discussed, including translation, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We describe examples from our own work, including focus groups and cognitive interviews conducted to assess Latinos’ interpretations of PA questions derived from various epidemiological surveys that were developed in White communities.

Findings:

Findings from focus groups and cognitive interviews provide valuable information about the comprehension, interpretation, and cultural relevance of the PA questions to Latino communities.

Conclusions:

It is recommended that investigators collect formative data to better assess the equivalence of items being applied to a different cultural group. Guidelines for cultural attunement of self-report instruments are described to promote more uniform and rigorous processes of adaptation and facilitate cross-cultural investigations.

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Thomas L. McKenzie, Kathryn J. LaMaster, James F. Sallis and Simon J. Marshall

The relationship of classroom teachers’ leisure time physical activity and their conduct of physical education classes was investigated. Eighteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers reported on their leisure physical activity and had their physical education classes observed systematically during 4 consecutive semesters. Correlational analyses confirmed that more active teachers taught physical education differently from those that were less active. Teachers who were more active provided students with increased physical fitness activities, and the teachers themselves spent more time promoting physical fitness during lessons. The study provides some support for the hypothesis that physically active teachers provide higher quality physical education.

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Simon J. Marshall, Stuart J.H. Biddle, James F. Sallis, Thomas L. McKenzie and Terry L. Conway

Few studies have attempted to describe patterns of sedentary behavior among children and examine how these relate to patterns of physical activity. A group of 2,494 youth aged 11–15 years from the USA and UK completed a physical activity checklist. Low intercorrelations between sedentary behaviors suggest youth sedentariness is multifaceted and cannot be represented accurately by any one behavior such as TV viewing. Cluster analysis identified three groups of young people, differentiated by the level and type of sedentary behavior and physical activity. Physical activity and sedentary behavior are not two sides of the same coin. Further study should examine the health-related outcomes associated with sedentary behavior and the modifiable determinants of these behaviors among young people.

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Andrew J. Atkin, Trish Gorely, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Simon J. Marshall and Noel Cameron

The present study examined physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of adolescents between 15.30h and 18.30h. The sample for this study is 1,484 (boys: n = 561; girls: n = 923). Boys and girls reported 21 and 19 min of physical activity and 24 and 26 min of homework respectively during this period. Technology-based sedentary behavior (TV viewing, computer and video game use) was significantly higher in boys than girls (boys = 50 mins; girls = 35 mins; p < .05). The most prevalent behaviors after school are technology-based sedentary behavior, homework and physical activity. During these hours, engagement in physical activity does not appear to displace time spent doing homework.

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Noe C. Crespo, Kirsten Corder, Simon Marshall, Gregory J. Norman, Kevin Patrick, James F. Sallis and John P. Elder

Background:

Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children’s physical activity (PA).

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5–8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children’s PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined.

Results:

Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child’s mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA.

Conclusions:

This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

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Simon Marshall, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan Carlson, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Ruth Patterson, Kari Wasilenko, Katie Crist, Dori Rosenberg and Loki Natarajan

The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of sedentary time on weekdays vs. weekend days in older adults and determine if these patterns vary by measurement method. Older adults (N = 230, M = 83.5, SD = 6.5 years) living in retirement communities completed a questionnaire about sedentary behavior and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for seven days. Participants engaged in 9.4 (SD = 1.5) hr per day of accelerometer-measured sedentary time, but self-reported engaging in 11.4 (SD = 4.9) hr per day. Men and older participants had more accelerometer-measured sedentary time than their counterparts. The difference between accelerometer-measured weekday and weekend sedentary time was nonsignificant. However, participants self-reported 1.1 hr per day more sedentary time on weekdays compared with weekend days. Findings suggest self-reported but not accelerometer-measured sedentary time should be investigated separately for weekdays and weekend days, and that self-reports may overestimate sedentary time in older adults.