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Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke

In this study, we draw attention to time-competing activities and psychological variables as impeding or enabling factors of physical activity behavior in 55- to 70-year-old Germans. Cross-sectional data was used (n = 4,891). Results indicate that paid work has a negative relationship with sufficient physical activity. Persons who provide nursing care seem to be motivated to achieve sufficient physical activity behavior, but do not meet established recommendations. Active citizenship positively relates to higher physical activity levels. The investment of energy in life domains and a distinct internal locus of control characterize motivated underachievers. Those sufficiently physically active show higher values in conscientiousness. This suggests that time-consuming and strongly externally determined activities like nursing care and paid work hinder a sufficient level of physical activity, even if the motivation is existent. Active citizenship and physical activity seem to be linked processes.

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Sonia Lippke, Jochen P. Ziegelmann, and Ralf Schwarzer

Patients in rehabilitation settings often face difficulties in complying with physical exercise regimens. To examine social-cognitive determinants in the adoption and maintenance of exercise, a study with four points in time was launched, scrutinizing beliefs and behaviors of 509 orthopedic patients. Although exercise levels increased over time, a sizable number of patients remained inactive. Perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies predicted levels of intention and action plans. The latter two in turn were proximal predictors of subsequent exercise. In light of the findings, it is argued that planning helps to bridge the intention-behavior gap. Planning is an alterable variable and is therefore suitable for effective intervention.