The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pedagogical strategies in adapted physical education (hybrid virtual/real vs. conventional) on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children with intellectual disability age 7–10 years. Children with intellectual disability (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either the hybrid (experimental group) or the conventional (control group) group and were evaluated across 10 weeks. The hybrid program was based on virtual and real game situations, while the conventional program was based on adapted sports. FMS were evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 at pre- and postprogram for both groups. Both programs significantly improve locomotor skills, with significantly better improvement in the experimental group. However, a significant improvement was observed only among the experimental group for object-control skills and gross motor quotient. Based on these results, a hybrid program may be considered for FMS improvement.
Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec
Ghada Jouira, Haithem Rebai, and Sonia Sahli
Context: The Y Balance Test (YBT) is a simple, reliable, cost-effective screening test. It is used to evaluate dynamic balance as well as to determine the potential risk of injury of the lower limbs. The reliability of YBT has been widely reported in the general population. However, there are no studies evaluating the reliability of YBT use in athletes with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the study was to examine the reliability of the YBT in runners with ID. Design: A reliability study. Methods: Twelve male runners (short-distance running) with ID (age 25.1 [4.50] y, height 169.1 [4.2] cm, weight 69.5 [5.5] kg, and intelligence quotient 60.8 [2.4]). The YBT was used to measure participants’ dynamic balance in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach directions. The analysis used the normalized values to the relative length of the lower limbs. A 1-way (trial) repeated-measures (5) analysis of variance for each direction was used. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change were computed to assess the reliability of the YBT between trials. Results: After 6 practice trials, 3 out of 5 consecutive ones achieved results stabilization for all directions and both legs (P < .05). The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change values for all trials ranged from .76 to .87, 5% to <7%, and 11% to <15%, respectively. Conclusion: The YBT is a highly reliable tool to measure the dynamic balance of male runners with ID. Therefore, it is recommended to perform 6 practice trials and 3 measurements in these runners.
Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai
The authors explored neuromuscular fatigue in athletes with intellectual disability (AID) compared with sedentary individuals with intellectual disability (SID) and individuals with typical development. Force, voluntary activation level, potentiated resting twitch, and electromyography signals were assessed during isometric maximal voluntary contractions performed before and immediately after an isometric submaximal exhaustive contraction (15% isometric maximal voluntary contractions) and during recovery period. AID presented shorter time to task failure than SID (p < .05). The three groups presented similar isometric maximal voluntary contraction decline and recovery kinetic. Both groups with intellectual disability presented higher voluntary activation level and root mean square normalized to peak-to-peak M-wave amplitude declines (p < .05) compared with individuals with typical development. These declines were more pronounced in SID (p < .05) than in AID. The AID recovered their initial voluntary activation level later than controls, whereas SID did not. SID presented lower potentiated resting twitch decline compared with AID and controls with faster recovery (p < .05). AID presented attenuated central fatigue and accentuated peripheral fatigue compared with their sedentary counterparts, suggesting a neuromuscular profile close to that of individuals with typical development.
Ghada Jouira, Selim Srihi, Fatma Ben Waer, Haithem Rebai, and Sonia Sahli
Context: Athletes with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk of injury while participating in various sports. Warm-up (WU) is the most preventive measure to reduce injuries in sports. Objective: To investigate the effects of dynamic stretching WU (DS-WU) and plyometric WU (PL-WU) on dynamic balance in athletes with ID. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: A total of 12 athletes with ID (age 24.5 [3.22] y, height 165.7 [8.4] cm, weight 61.5 [7.1] kg, intelligence quotient 61.1 [3.5]). Main Outcome Measures: Dynamic balance was assessed using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) at pre-WU, post-WU, and 15 minutes post-WU for both the DS-WU and the PL-WU. A 2-way analysis of variance (3 sessions × 2 WU methods) with repeated-measures was used in this study. Results: Following the DS-WU, participants demonstrated significant improvements in the SEBT composite score post-WU (89.12% [5.54%] vs 87.04% [5.35%]; P < .01) and at 15 minutes post-WU (89.55% [5.28%] vs 87.04%, P < .01) compared with pre-WU. However, no significant difference between these two post-WU scores (post-WU and 15 min post-WU) was found. For the PL-WU, participants demonstrated a significant decrease in the SEBT composite score at post-WU (85.95% [5.49%] vs 87.02% [5.73%]; P < .05); however, these scores increased significantly at 15 minutes post-WU (88.60% [5.42%] vs 87.02% [5.49%]; P < .05) compared with that at pre-WU. The SEBT composite scores are significantly higher in the DS-WU than in the PL-WU at both post-WU sessions (P < .05). Conclusion: Both DS-WU and PL-WU could improve dynamic balance and may be recommended as WUs in athletes with ID; however, particular caution should be exercised immediately after the PL-WU.
Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka, and Haithem Rebai
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mass and bone turnover markers with lean mass (LM) in pubescent soccer players. Two groups participated in this study, which included 65 elite young soccer players who trained for 6–8 hours per week and 60 controls. Bone mineral density; bone mineral content in the whole body, lower limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral neck; biochemical markers of osteocalcin; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase; C-telopeptide type I collagen; and total LM were assessed. Young soccer players showed higher bone mineral density and bone mineral content in the whole body and weight-bearing sites (P < .001). Indeed, the total LM correlated with whole-body bone mineral density and bone mineral content (P < .001). There were significant differences within the bone formation markers and osteocalcin (formation)/C-telopeptide type I collagen (resorption) ratio between young soccer players compared with the control group, but no significant difference in C-telopeptide type I collagen was observed between the 2 groups. This study showed a significant positive correlation among bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and total LM (r = .29; r = .31; P < .05) only for the young soccer players. Findings of this study highlight the importance of soccer practice for bone mineral parameters and bone turnover markers during the puberty stage.
Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Zouheir Tabka, and Georges Poumarat
There is limited information about the effects of increasing load while squatting
To quantify tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with variable loads.
20 male students.
Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of four involved muscles were determined by recording the half squat with variable external loads.
Main Outcome Measures:
Tibiofemoral joint force and external moment components and EMG activity of four involved muscles.
Throughout the exercise, a posterior direction for the antero-posterior shear force and a net extension for the external moment were observed. They increased with knee flexion reaching peak force of 29% of the subject body weight (BW) and moment of 88Nm (without external load). All force and moment components and muscle activities increased as the external load increased.
These findings suggest that half squat may be safe to use for quadriceps strengthening with very low potential loading on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Our data can help clinicians choose the appropriate external load.