The purpose of this study was to examine the required skills and educational background of internship students from the on-site supervisors’ point of view. A questionnaire examined the role of the internship, the skills student interns should possess and several other issues related to the intern’s experiences including the minimum number of hours for student interns’ best experiences, preferred academic backgrounds of student interns, the responsibilities of faculty internship advisors, stipend or salary, important skills student interns should possess, number of student interns organizations accept, practitioners’ thoughts on requiring internships in sport management, chances for student interns to be hired afterwards, and internship evaluation. According to 36 on-site internship supervisors’ responses to the questionnaire, 50% of the major North American professional sport leagues were paying student interns equivalent to only minimum wage or a slightly higher rate compared to the national average a paid intern was receiving ($15.00-$16.00 per hour). Other findings were the number of student interns accepted and the number of hours those interns were expected to work. However, no specific courses were required of students in order to be considered for internships. Overall, grade point average (GPA) was not found to be a main factor on-site internship supervisors used to select appropriate student interns. While it is generally assumed that a cooperative relationship among the student, the onsite internship supervisor and the academic faculty supervisor is vital, on-site internship supervisors were not as cooperative as the literature suggests. It was also determined that student interns were not consistently evaluated to any great extent and therefore a universal manual should be developed for assessment purposes. The findings of this study also documented that on-site internship supervisors and academic faculty supervisors held different expectations and perceptions in terms of fulfilling the requirements for a degree.
Seok Kang, Soonhwan Lee, and Seungbum Lee
The current study examined student athletes’ motives for viewing sports programs on television and their relationships with various viewing behaviors. Employing uses and gratifications theory and social differentiation theory, the study investigated whether student athletes’ motives for sports-program viewing would predict their preference of program selection and amount of viewing. An on-site survey of 225 Division I athletes from 3 Midwestern universities found that student athletes had entertainment, social-facilitation, and integration motives for sports-program viewing. Ritual use of sports programs (entertainment) was their primary motive, followed by instrumental use (social facilitation and integration). Results showed that student athletes’ main goal of watching sports programs on television was escape from their daily problems. Additional results showed that there was no gender difference in student athletes’ motives and sports-program preferences. Both male and female student athletes preferred male sports such as football and men’s college basketball.
Seok Kang, Soonhwan Lee, and Kang-Bon Goo
The current study examined how U.S. soccer fans’ multimedia exposure to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa and psychological factors affected purchase intention of sponsored products in an integrated model. The model tested the influence of multimedia exposure on attitude toward the sponsored products, important others’ voices, and self-control toward the brands, which could affect purchase intention. In addition, the influence of past experience with the sponsored brands on purchase intention was tested in the model. A self-reported online survey was distributed to two university communities in the U.S. after the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The analysis of 650 responses reported that multimedia exposure did not directly influence purchase intention of sponsored products, but indirectly affected intention through psychological factors (attitude and subjective norm). U.S. audiences of the 2010 FIFA World Cup tended to be affected by value, excitement, emotional feeling, and others’ voice rather than self-controlled determination for purchase intention of sponsored products. The results tested in the integrated model indicate that multimedia exposure to the FIFA World Cup is likely to foster a social facilitation atmosphere which positively influences purchase intention.
Soonhwan Lee, Seungmo Kim, and Adam Love
Many members of the LGBT community have viewed the Gay Games as an opportunity to challenge dominant ideologies concerning sexuality and sport participation. Members of the mass media, however, play a potentially important role in how the event is perceived by the general public. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to examine how the Gay Games have been framed in newspaper coverage. A total of 646 articles published in the United States covering the eight Gay Games events held during the 32-year period of 1980–2012 were analyzed in terms of three aspects of framing: (a) the types of issues highlighted, (b) the sources of information cited, and (c) the manner in which either episodic or thematic narratives were employed. The results of the current study revealed that issues of identity and optimism were most commonly highlighted, LGBT participants were most frequently cited as sources of information, and thematic framing was most commonly employed in newspaper coverage of the Gay Games.