Research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological skills training (PST), yet many athletes do not appear ready to do whatever it takes to improve the mental aspects of performance. Although the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), generally, and readiness to change, specifically, have received considerable attention in a range of allied health fields, few studies have been conducted to examine this construct in applied sport psychology. The purpose of the current study was to examine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes’ readiness for PST as it relates to their stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change. The data trends observed in the current study were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the TTM as well as previous research on NCAA Division I athletes. The results of the current study highlight the need to consider readiness to change when designing and implementing PST interventions.
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William V. Massey, Stacy L. Gnacinski, and Barbara B. Meyer
Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski, and Barbara B. Meyer
Despite advancements in sport-injury rehabilitation theory and intervention design, return-to-play outcomes remain suboptimal. To explore the current knowledge base in sport-injury rehabilitation, the authors use an existing framework to review and outline gaps in the sport-injury evidence base. Through the lens of this framework they highlight the dearth of literature exploring how professionals approach rehabilitation, which may be one of several factors contributing to persistently poor rehabilitation outcomes. To begin addressing the identified gap in practice, the authors hypothetically apply 3 established team-based approaches from other rehabilitation domains to a single sport-injury case study to provide concrete examples of how team-based practice approaches can be effectively used in the sport domain. Professional-practice implications are discussed alongside areas for future research.
Madison N. Renner, Stacy L. Gnacinski, Franchesca J. Porter, and David J. Cornell
Context: Although occupational injuries for police officers cannot be prevented, factors that contribute to musculoskeletal injury risk could be better identified to inform preventative interventions. Previous research has supported screening tools such as the functional movement screen (FMS) and Y-Balance Test (YBT) as possible indicators of musculoskeletal injury risk. The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the relationships between age, dynamic balance, and functional movement in police officers and (2) determine how much variance in functional movement is predicted by age and dynamic balance. Methods: This study was conducted in a university research laboratory as part of an ongoing collaboration with a local police department. All data for the current study were collected across 2 separate laboratory visits within a 14-day period. Participants: Thirty-five active-duty police officers (31 men and 4 women; mean [SD], age 33.4 [9.4] y, height 177.4 [8.0] cm, body mass 88.4 [15.3] kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Functional movement was assessed using the FMS, and FMS overall scores were calculated. Dynamic balance was assessed via the YBT, and lower quarter Y-Balance Test scores (LQYBT%) were calculated. Results: There was a significant negative correlation between FMS overall score and age (r = −.641, P < .001). Correlations between FMS overall score and LQYBT% and between LQYBT% and age were not statistically significant. Age and LQYBT% scores significantly predicted FMS overall scores (F 2,32 = 11.162, P < .001), accounting for 41.1% of the variance in FMS overall scores (R 2 = .411) with age being the only significant predictor. Conclusions: This study confirms that age and FMS overall score have a strong, negative relationship, suggesting that age may be a contributing factor to movement quality and may lead to an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury within this unique population.
Stacy L. Gnacinski, William V. Massey, Courtney W. Hess, Mellanie M. Nai, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, and Barbara B. Meyer
To enhance the specificity of psychological skills training (PST) interventions, the purpose of the current study was to examine stage of change and gender differences in the combination of transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs (i.e., decisional balance pros and cons, self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change) among collegiate student-athletes. Participants (N = 602) completed all TTM measures, and a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of stage of change and gender on the combination of TTM constructs. No significant interaction effect was identified, yet significant main effects of stage of change and gender were identified. Post hoc tests revealed unique linear combinations of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change for each stage of change contrast. Taken together, study findings may be used to enhance the specificity of behavior change interventions when delivering PST programs to both male and female collegiate student-athletes.