To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 ± 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1–3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4–6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the HCHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial (104.5 ± 9.4 mmol/kg wet wt) when compared to the L-CHO trial (72.2 ± 5.6 mmol/kg wet wt). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, and respiratory quotient during exercise were not significantly different between the 2 trials. Serum glucose during exercise for the H-CHO trial significantly increased (p < .05) from 4.5 ± 0.1 mmol · L−1 (pre) to 6.7 ± 0.6 mmol · L−1 (post), while no changes were found for the L-CHO trial. In addition, post-exercise serum glucose was significantly greater (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial when compared to the L-CHO trial (H-CHO, 6.7 ± 0.6 mmol · L−1; L-CHO, 5.2 ± 0.2 mmol · L−1). No significant changes were observed in serum free fatty acid, triglycerides, or insulin concentration in either trial. The findings suggest that L-CHO had no major effect on 45-min cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.
Stavros A. Kavouras, John P. Troup and Jacqueline R. Berning
Thomas Kyriazis, Gerasimos Terzis, Giorgos Karampatsos, Stavros Kavouras and Giorgos Georgiadis
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between fat-free mass and shot put performance at the beginning of the winter preparation cycle and at the first peak of the season (12 wk later) in well-trained shot-putters using the rotational style.
Eight national-level shot put athletes followed their individual training programs for a period of 12 wk aiming at the national indoor championship. Shot put performance with the rotational style as well as from the power position was determined before and after this 12 wk period. Body composition was determined before and after the training period with dual x-ray absorptiometry.
Shot put from the power position was increased by 3% (P = .03) while shot put with the rotational style was increased by 6.5% (P < .01). Fat-free mass, body fat and bone mineral density were not altered after the training period. The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance from the power position was significant (r = .76 preseason vs r = .66, competition; P < .05). The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance with the rotational style was significant at the beginning of the training period (r = .70, P < .05) but it was decreased to moderate and nonsignificant levels at competition (r = .55, ns).
These results suggest that the increase of fat-free mass might not be the most essential element for competition when the rotational shot put style is involved.
Giannis Arnaoutis, Stavros A. Kavouras, Yiannis P. Kotsis, Yiannis E. Tsekouras, Michalis Makrillos and Costas N. Bardis
There is a lack of studies concerning hydration status of young athletes exercising in the heat.
To assess preexercise hydration status in young soccer players during a summer sports camp and to evaluate bodywater balance after soccer training sessions.
Initial hydration status was assessed in 107 young male soccer players (age 11–16 yr) during the 2nd day of the camp. Seventy-two athletes agreed to be monitored during 2 more training sessions (3rd and 5th days of the camp) to calculate dehydration via changes in body weight, while water drinking was allowed ad libitum. Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), urine color, and changes in total body weight. Mean environmental temperature and humidity were 27.2 ± 2 °C and 57% ± 9%, respectively.
According to USG values, 95 of 107 of the players were hypohydrated (USG ≥ 1.020) before practice. The prevalence of dehydration observed was maintained on both days, with 95.8% and 97.2% of the players being dehydrated after the training sessions on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Despite fluid availability, 54 of the 66 (81.8%) dehydrated players reduced their body weight (–0.35 ± 0.04 kg) as a response to training, while 74.6% (47 out of the 63) further reduced their body weight (–0.22 ± 0.03 kg) after training on the 5th day.
Approximately 90% of the young soccer players who began exercising under warm weather conditions were hypohydrated, while drinking ad libitum during practice did not prevent further dehydration in already dehydrated players.
Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras
The purpose of this article is to assess the hydration status of elite young sailing athletes during World Championship competition. Twelve young, elite, male, Laser Class sailors (age: 15.8 ± 1.1 y, height: 1.74 ± 0.1 m, weight: 65.1 ± 1.5 kg, body fat: 12.5 ± 3.1%, training experience: 7.0 ± 1.2 y) participated in this descriptive study. After three-day baseline bodyweight measurements, hydration status was assessed via pre- and post-race body weights, urine-specific gravity, and thirst ratings via a visual analog scale during four consecutive days of racing. Measurements and data collection took place at the same time each racing day, with mean environmental temperature, humidity, and wind speed at 23.0 ± 0.8°C, 64–70%, and 9 ± 1 knots, respectively. Average racing time was 130 ± 9 min. Body weight was significantly decreased following each race-day as compared to prerace values (Day 1: −1.1 ± 0.2, Day 2: −2.5 ± 0.1, Day 3: −2.8 ± 0.1, and Day 4: −3.0 ± 0.1% of body weight; p < 0.05). The participants exhibited dehydration of −2.9 ± 0.2 and −5.8 ± 0.2% of body weight before and after the fourth racing day as compared to the three-day baseline body weight. Urine-specific gravity (pre–post → Day 1: 1.014–1.017; Day 2: 1.019–1.024; Day 3: 1.021–1.026; Day 4: 1.022–1.027) and thirst (pre–post → Day 1: 2.0–5.2; Day 2: 3.2–5.5; Day 3: 3.7–5.7; Day 4: 3.8–6.8) were also progressively and significantly elevated throughout the four days of competition. The data revealed progressive dehydration throughout four consecutive days of racing as indicated by decreased body weight, elevated urine concentration, and high thirst.
J.D. Adams, Stavros A. Kavouras, Evan C. Johnson, Lisa T. Jansen, Catalina Capitan-Jimenez, Joseph I. Robillard and Andy Mauromoustakos
The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22 °C, 7 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). UOsm was stable at 22 °C, for 1 day (+5–9 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05) and at 7 °C, UOsm up to 7 days (+8–8 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05). At -20 and -80 °C, UOsm decreased after 1, 2, and 7 days (9–61 mmol∙kg-1, p < .05). Vortexing the sample before analysis further decreased only UOsm in the -20 °C and -80 °C storage. USG remained stable up to 7 days when samples were stored in 22 °C or 7 °C (p > .05) but declined significantly when stored in -20 °C, and -80 °C (p < .001). UC was not stable in any of the storing conditions for 1, 2, and 7 days. In conclusion, these data indicate that urine specimens analyzed for UOsm or USG remained stable in refrigerated (7 °C) environment for up to 7 days, and in room temperature for 1 day. However, freezing (-20 and -80 °C) samples significantly decreased the values of hydration markers.
Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras, Christina Koutsari, Charalambos Georgakakis, Katerina Skenderi, Michael Beer and Labros S. Sidossis
This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 ± 2.0; HMal: 68.6 ± 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 ± 2.0; Plac: 69.4 ± 3.0 min, P > 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9% faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.
Marcos Echegaray, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh, Deborah Riebe, Robert W. Kenefick, John W. Castellani, Stavros Kavouras and Douglas Casa
This study assessed the plasma glucose (PG) and hormonal responses to carbohydrate ingestion, prior to exercise in the heat, in a hypohydrated state versus partial rehydration with intravenous solutions. On separate days, 8 subjects (21.0 ± 1.8 years; 57.3 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) exercised at 50% V̇O2maxin a 33 °C environment until a 4% body weight loss was achieved. Following this, subjects were rehydrated (25 ml · kg−1) with either: 0.45% IV saline (45IV), 0.9% IV saline (9IV), or no fluid (NF). Subjects then ingested 1 g · kg−1 of carbohydrate and underwent an exercise test (treadmill walking, 50% V̇O2max, 36 °C) for up to 90 min. Compared to pre-exercise level (294 mg · dl−1), PG increased significantly (>124 mg · dl−1) at 15 min of the exercise test in all trials and remained significantly elevated for 75 min in NF, 30 min more than in the 2 rehydration trials. Although serum Insulin increased significantly at 15 min of exercise in the 45IV trial (7.2 ± 1.2 vs. 23.7 ± 4.7 μIU · ml−1) no significant differences between trials were observed. Peak plasma norepinephrine was significantly higher in NF (640 ± 66 pg · ml−1) compared to the 45IV and 9IV trials (472 ± 55 and 474 ± 52 pg · ml−1, respectively). In conclusion, ingestion of a small solid carbohydrate load prior to exercise in the 4% hypohydration level resulted in prolonged high PG concentration compared to partial IV rehydration.
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Jorge A. Herrera Soto, Frank T. Hacker Jr., Douglas J. Casa, Stavros A. Kavouras and Carl M. Maresh
This investigation evaluated the validity and sensitivity of urine color (Ucol), specific gravity (Usg), and osmolality (Uosm) as indices of hydration status, by comparing them to changes in body water. Nine highly trained males underwent a 42-hr protocol involving dehydration to 3.7% of body mass (Day 1, −2.64 kg), cycling to exhaustion (Day 2, −5.2% of body mass, −3.68 kg), and oral rehydration for 21 hr. The ranges of mean (across time) blood and urine values were Ucol, 1-7; Usg, 1.004-1.029; U08m, 117-1,081 mOsm • kg−1; and plasma osmolality (Posm), 280-298 mOsm ⋅ kg−1. Urine color tracked changes in body water as effectively as (or better than) Uosm, Usg, urine volume, Posm, plasma sodium, and plasma total protein. We concluded that (a) Ucol, Uosm, and Usg are valid indices of hydration status, and (b) marked dehydration, exercise, and rehydration had little effect on the validity and sensitivity of these indices.
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Amy C. Pumerantz, Kelly A. Fiala, Melissa W. Roti, Stavros A. Kavouras, Douglas J. Casa and Carl M. Maresh
It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M ± SD); it also compared urinary indices in initial morning samples and 24-hr collections. Five observations of 59 healthy, active men (age 22 ± 3 yr, body mass 75.1 ± 7.9 kg) occurred during a 12-d period. Participants maintained detailed records of daily food and fluid intake and exercise. Results indicated that the mean total fluid intake in beverages, pure water, and solid foods was >2.1 L/24 hr (range 1.382–3.261, 95% confidence interval 0.970–3.778 L/24 hr); mean urine volume was >1.3 L/24 hr (0.875–2.250 and 0.675–3.000 L/24 hr); mean urine specific gravity was >1.018 (1.011–1.027 and 1.009–1.030); and mean urine color was ≥4 (4–6 and 2–7). However, these men rarely (0–2% of measurements) achieved a urine specific gravity below 1.010 or color of 1. The first morning urine sample was more concentrated than the 24-h urine collection, likely because fluids were not consumed overnight. Furthermore, urine specific gravity and osmolality were strongly correlated (r2 = .81–.91, p < .001) in both morning and 24-hr collections. These findings provide euhydration reference values and hydration extremes for 7 commonly used indices in free-living, healthy, active men who were not exercising in a hot environment or training strenuously.
Douglas J. Casa, Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Stavros A. Kavouras, Jorge A. Herrera-Soto, Frank T. Hacker Jr., Timothy P. Scheett and James Stoppani
The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous fluid rehydration, versus oral rehydration. during a brief period (20 min) differentially affects plasma ACTH, cortisol, and norepinephrine concentrations during subsequent exhaustive exercise in the heat. Following dehydration (DHY) to −4% of body weight, 8 nonacclimated highly trained males (age = 23.5 ± 1.2 years, V̇O2peak = 61.4±0.8 ml · kg · min−1, % body fat = 13.5±0.6%) cycled to exhaustion at 74% V̇O2peak in 36.8 °C on three different occasions. These included: (a) no fluid (NF), where no fluid was provided during the rehydration period; (b) DRINK, where oral rehydration (0.45% NaCl) was provided equal to 50% of the prior DHY; and (c) IV, where intravenous infusion (0.45% NaCl) was provided equal to 50%’ of the prior DHY. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different p = .07) between the DRINK (34.86 ±4.01) and IV (29.48 ± 3.50) trials, but both were significantly p < .05) longer than the NF (18.95 ± 2.73) trial. No differences (p > .05) were found for any of the hormone measures among trials. The endocrine responses at exhaustion were similar regardless of hydration state and mode of rehydration, but rehydration prolonged the exercise time to exhaustion.