Internal reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) were examined with respect to physical activity (Study 1) and sedentary behavior (Study 2) among children and adolescents. Internal reliabilities of the SRHI proved to be high in both studies. The SRHI correlated significantly with behavioral frequency measures, as well as with known cognitive associates of these behaviors. Moreover, theory-based moderating influences of habit on the attitude–intention and intention–behavior relationships were identified. The study provides early evidence to support the concept of habit as being important in dealing with physical activity in children.
Stef P.J. Kremers and Johannes Brug
Teun Remmers, Ester F.C. Sleddens, Stef P.J. Kremers and Carel Thijs
Physical activity (PA) enjoyment may be an important determinant of long-term habitual, self-sustained PA behavior in children. The objective of the current study was to contribute toward a better understanding of how children’s PA enjoyment is associated with PA behavior by examining the influence of age, gender, BMI, and impulsivity as theoretically hypothesized moderators of this relationship.
PA was measured in 171 children (77 boys, 91 girls) using accelerometers, and PA enjoyment was assessed with the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in 9-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, the Netherlands. Linear regressions were fitted. Moderation was tested by adding interaction terms between PA enjoyment and the potential moderators.
We found a significant 3-way interaction (PA enjoyment × gender × impulsivity) for all intensities of PA behavior. In boys, impulsivity strengthened the relationship between PA enjoyment and PA behavior, whereas in girls impulsivity weakened this relationship.
In girls, this may be explained by the relative automatic occurrence of PA behavior in impulsive girls (independent of PA enjoyment). In boys, the possibility that impulsivity is associated with hyperactivity may explain this moderation. The current study may encourage researchers to investigate these interactions in future studies.
Stijn A.H. Friederichs, Stef P.J. Kremers, Lilian Lechner and Nanne K. de Vries
In promoting physical activity, it is important to gain insight into environmental factors that facilitate or hinder physical activity and factors that may influence this environment–behavior relationship. As the personality factor of action orientation reflects an individual’s capacity to regulate behavior it may act as a moderator in the environment–behavior relationship. The current study addressed the relationship between neighborhood walkability and walking behavior and the influence of action orientation on this relationship.
Three hundred and forty-seven Dutch inhabitants [mean age 43.1 (SD 17.1)] completed a web based questionnaire assessing demographic variables, neighborhood walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale), variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior, action orientation, and walking behavior.
The results show that high levels of neighborhood walkability are positively associated with walking behavior and that this influence is largely unmediated by cognitive processes. A positive influence of neighborhood walkability on walking behavior was identified in the action-oriented subpopulation, whereas in the state-oriented part of the population, this influence was absent.
The findings suggest that the influence of neighborhood environment on walking behavior has a relatively large unconscious, automatic component. In addition, the results suggest that the walkability–walking relationship is moderated by action orientation.
Dave H.H. Van Kann, Sanne I. de Vries, Jasper Schipperijn, Nanne K. de Vries, Maria W.J. Jansen and Stef P.J. Kremers
Background: The aim of the study was to test the 12-month effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) intervention at schoolyards on morning recess PA levels of sixth- and seventh-grade children in primary schools, using accelerometry and additional global positioning system data. Methods: A quasi-experimental study design was used with 20 paired intervention and control schools. Global positioning system confirmatory analyses were applied to validate attendance at schoolyards during recess. Accelerometer data from 376 children from 7 pairs of schools were included in the final analyses. Pooled intervention effectiveness was tested by multilevel linear regression analyses, whereas effectiveness of intervention components was tested by multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: Children exposed to the multicomponent intervention increased their time spent in light PA (+5.9%) during recess. No pooled effects on moderate to vigorous PA were found. In-depth analyses of intervention components showed that physical schoolyard interventions particularly predicted a decrease in time spent in sedentary behavior during recess at follow-up. Intervention intensity and the school’s commitment to the project strengthened this effect. Conclusions: The multicomponent schoolyard PA intervention was effective in making children spend a larger proportion of recess time in light PA, which was most likely the result of a shift from sedentary behavior to light PA.