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Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli

Purpose: To establish a specific player profile on body-composition parameters and to provide a data set of bioelectric impedances values for male volleyball players. Methods: The study included 201 athletes (age 26.1 [5.4] y, height 191.9 [9.7] cm, weight 86.8 [10.8] kg) registered in the Italian volleyball divisions. The athletes were divided into 3 groups: The elite group comprised 75 players participating in the 1st (Super Lega) division, the subelite group included 65 athletes performing in the 2nd (Serie A2) division, and the low-level group included 61 players participating in the 3rd (Serie B) division. Bioelectric impedance, body weight, and height of the athletes were measured in the second half of the competitive season. In addition, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis was performed. Results: The elite group showed a greater amount of fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) and a lower fat mass (FM) than the subelite group (P < .05). In addition, the elite players were taller and heavier and had a higher FFM, FM, TBW, and body cellular mass than the low-level athletes (P < .05). Finally, the mean impedance vectors of the elite group significantly differed from those measured in the normal population and in the other 2 groups (P < .05). Conclusions: This study provides an original data set of body-composition and bioelectric impedance reference values of elite male volleyball players. The results might be useful for interpretation of individual bioimpedance vectors and for defining target regions for volleyball players.

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Francesco Campa, Federico Spiga, and Stefania Toselli

Context: Poor functional movement patterns negatively affect the ability to perform fundamental movements with precision and efficiency, increasing injury risk in athletes. Objectives: To examine the effect of a 20-week corrective exercise program during the competitive season on functional movement patterns in youth elite male soccer players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Team facilities. Participants: Sixty-five youth elite male soccer players (age: 15.89 [0.53] y; weight: 67.42 [6.78] kg; and stature: 175.20 [6.34] cm). Of the 4 teams, 2 were randomly selected to take part in the corrective program. Thus, the players were placed into 2 groups: corrective exercise program and control group. Intervention: Corrective exercise program. Main Outcome Measures: Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was used to assess the presence of dysfunctional, asymmetrical, and painful movements in the players before and after the intervention period. In addition to considering the FMS total score (FMStotal), we separated the screen into 3 parts: FMSmove, FMSflex, and FMSstab. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the training program on FMS scores. The chi-square test was performed to determine whether there were significant changes in the frequencies of asymmetric and dysfunctional movements after 20 weeks. Results: No athlete experienced severe injuries during the intervention period. There was a significant group by time interaction (P < .01) for FMStotal, FMSmove, and FMSstab, in which only the corrective exercise program increased their scores after the intervention period (P < .05). A chi-square analysis showed a significant (P < .05) decrease in asymmetric and dysfunctional movements at the follow-up in corrective exercise program, whereas these changes were not observed in the control group. Conclusions: Youth elite soccer players demonstrate a high prevalence of asymmetric movements during FMS testing, but their functional movement patterns can be improved during the competitive season following a specific corrective exercise program.

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski, and Stefania Toselli

Purpose: The exercise-induced increase in skin and body temperature, cutaneous blood flow, and electrolyte accumulation on the skin affects the validity of bioimpedance analysis to assess postexercise changes in hydration. This study aimed to assess the influence of a 10-min cold (22°C) shower on the time course of impedance measurements after controlled exercise. Methods: In total, 10 male athletes (age 26.2 [4.1] y and body mass index 23.9 [1.7] kg/m2) were tested on 2 different days. During both trials, athletes ran for 30 min on a treadmill in a room at 23°C. In a randomized crossover trial, the participants underwent a 10-min cold shower on the trial occasion and did not shower in the control trial. Bioimpedance analysis variables were measured before running (ie, baseline [T0]), immediately after exercising (T1), and 20 (T2), 40 (T3), and 60 min (T4) after the exercise. The shower was performed after T1 in the shower trial. Results: Body weight decreased similarly in both trials (−0.4% [0.1%], P < .001; −0.4% [0.1%], P < .001). Resistance and vector length returned to baseline at T2 in the shower trial, whereas baseline values were achieved at T3 in the control trial (P > .05). In the control trial, reactance remained at a lower level for the entire testing period (38.1 [6.9] vs 37.3 [6.7], P < .001). Forehead skin temperature returned to baseline values at T2 with shower, whereas it was still high at T4 without shower (P < .001). Conclusions: The present data show that a 10-min cold shower enables the stabilization of bioimpedance analysis measurements within 20 min after exercise, which might facilitate the assessment of hydration change after exercise.

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, and Stefania Toselli

Context: Sports practice leads athletes to develop a specific body composition, coordination patterns, and basic motor skills based on the different tactical and physical needs. Objectives: To present and compare a wide range of functional movement patterns and body composition (BC) parameters of high-level male athletes playing different sports and to determine if there was a relationship between the parameters examined. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Team facilities. Participants: A total of 30 volleyball, 25 soccer, and 30 rugby players (age = 25.9 [5.0] y and body mass index = 25.6 [4.1] kg/m2). Interventions: Functional movement patterns and anthropometric measurements were collected by a physician specifically trained. Main Outcome Measures: Body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, upper-arm muscle and fat area, calf muscle and fat area, thigh muscle and fat area, and functional movement screen (FMS) scores. In addition to considering the FMS total score, the authors separated the screen into 3 parts: FMSmove, FMSflex, and FMSstab. Results: The rugby players showed a higher number of asymmetrical and dysfunctional movements than the other athletes (P < .01), while the highest scores in FMSflex were obtained by the volleyball players (P < .01). In addition, most of the asymmetrical and painful movements in the athletes were measured on the shoulder mobility test. Muscle and fat areas differed significantly among the athletes (P < .05). Significant associations were found between movement patterns and several BC variables. In particular, large negative correlations were measured between percentage of fat mass (r = −.616; P < .01), upper-arm fat area (r = −.519; P < .01), and FMS total score. Conclusions: Functional movement patterns and BC differ in athletes according to the sport practiced. Furthermore, reaching an optimal BC is essential to achieve a satisfactory quality of movement.

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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

Purpose: To analyze the association between body fluid changes evaluated by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and dilution techniques over a competitive season in athletes. Methods: A total of 58 athletes of both sexes (men: age 18.7 [4.0] y and women: age 19.2 [6.0] y) engaging in different sports were evaluated at the beginning (pre) and 6 months after (post) the competitive season. Deuterium dilution and bromide dilution were used as the criterion methods to assess total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW), respectively; intracellular water (ICW) was calculated as TBW–ECW. Bioelectrical resistance and reactance were obtained with a phase-sensitive 50-kHz bioelectrical impedance analysis device; bioelectrical impedance vector analysis was applied. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess fat mass and fat-free mass. The athletes were empirically classified considering TBW change (pre–post, increase or decrease) according to sex. Results: Significant mean vector displacements in the postgroups were observed in both sexes. Specifically, reductions in vector length (Z/H) were associated with increases in TBW and ICW (r = −.718, P < .01; r = −.630, P < .01, respectively) and decreases in ECW:ICW ratio (r = .344, P < .05), even after adjusting for age, height, and sex. Phase-angle variations were positively associated with TBW and ICW (r = .458, P < .01; r = .564, P < .01, respectively) and negatively associated with ECW:ICW (r = −.436, P < .01). Phase angle significantly increased in all the postgroups except in women in whom TBW decreased. Conclusions: The results suggest that bioelectrical impedance vector analysis is a suitable method to obtain a qualitative indication of body fluid changes during a competitive season in athletes.