Aim: To analyze the data from the World Health Organization Nepal STEPS survey 2013 to determine the prevalence of total and domain-specific physical activity (PA) and associated factors among Nepalese adults. Methods: A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to proportionately select participants from the 3 ecological zones (Mountain, Hill, and Terai) in Nepal. The Global PA Questionnaire was used to assess PA. The data were analyzed using quantile and ordinary least square regression. Results: Only 4% of the adults did not meet the World Health Organization PA guidelines. Age had a negative monotonic association with total PA and occupational PA, with the highest difference at the upper tails of the PA distribution. Lower total PA and occupational PA were associated with secondary or higher education, being retired or in unpaid employment, living in Terai or urban areas, and nonsmoking. Age, higher education, unpaid employment, and Terai or urban residence were negatively associated, while being currently married was positively associated with transport-related PA. Conclusion: Increasing age, higher education, unpaid employment, unemployment or retirement, and urban residence were associated with lower PA, with the stronger association at the upper tails of the distribution. The correlates had dissimilar associations across the quantiles of PA distribution.
Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier and Ben J. Smith
Adelle Gadowski, Alice J. Owen, Andrea Curtis, Natalie Nanayakkara, Stephane Heritier, Marie Misso and Sophia Zoungas
This review examines the effects of statins on physical activity and/or fitness, as statins can have adverse muscle effects. A search was done of MEDLINE, Embase, and EBMR databases up to July 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing statin with placebo or control, measuring physical activity and/or fitness in adults. Sixteen randomized controlled trials (total participants [N] = 2,944) were included, 6 randomized controlled trials contributed data for meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis examined differences in physical fitness, maximal exercise time (in seconds) in exercise testing, and maximal heart rate (in beats per minute) between statins and control. No significant difference between statin and control for maximal heart rate (mean difference = 2.8 beats per minute, 95% confidence interval [−7.4, 13.0]; p = .59) nor exercise time (mean difference = 82.8 s, 95% confidence interval [−31.9, 197.4]; p = .516) were seen. There were insufficient studies reporting habitual physical activity to perform a meta-analysis. This review found no evidence for an effect of statins on physical activity or fitness, but data availability is limited.