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Stephen A. Butterfield

Decker contends that deaf children should be educated in regular public school classrooms. In response, it is argued that due to their unique social/emotional/cultural needs, some deaf children benefit from residential school placement–particularly in physical education. Use of the term deaf is also discussed.

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Stephen A. Butterfield

Efforts to include children with disabilities in mainstream settings often raise questions as to what constitutes “least restrictive.” This paper addresses educational placement of deaf children, especially as it pertains to physical education and sport. Many leaders in deaf education hold that placement of deaf children in public schools often occurs without regard to their socioemotional/cultural/language needs. This paper provides a rationale for the residential school as a viable and legitimate placement option for deaf children. Also included in the paper is a brief historical overview of deaf education including the contributions of residential schools to deaf sport and deaf culture.

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Christopher J. Nightingale, Sidney N. Mitchell and Stephen A. Butterfield

The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an easy to administer clinical test to evaluate a senior citizen’s fall risk. Limited evidence has been presented in the literature validating the TUG test. In this study, the authors sought to assess correlations between the TUG test and various balance markers utilizing the OptoGait system. A total of 51 healthy seniors completed randomized trials of the TUG test and a gait test utilizing OptoGait photoelectric technology. Correlations among mean and SD values for these variables and TUG performance were calculated. Utilizing a Bonferroni adjustment and an alpha level of .05, eight significant correlations of a moderately strong degree (absolute r scores between .51 and .78) emerged. Correlation results indicate that the TUG test is a valid tool for screening balance deficits that lead to increased fall risk in senior citizens.

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Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis and Stephen A. Butterfield

Analyzing data in the exercise sciences can be challenging when trying to account for physical changes brought about by maturation (e.g., growth in height, weight, heart/lung capacity, muscle-to-fat ratio). In this paper, we present an argument for using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an approach to analyzing physical performance data. Using an applied example from Butterfield, Lehnhard, Lee, and Coladarci, we will show why HLM is an appropriate analysis technique and provide other examples of where HLM will be beneficial.

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the performance on the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) test in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) over the course of a school year, and also to investigate the possible influence of age, sex, school sport participation, and body mass index on results. Methods: Utilizing a repeated measures design, 892 middle school children aged 11–14 years (mean = 12.25, SD = 0.94) including 55 children with ADHD participated. While controlling for age, sex, sports participation, and body mass index, children were tested on the PACER 3 times during the school year. Procedures specified in the FITNESSGRAM test manual were explicitly followed. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to analyze the data. Results: Children with ADHD performed 8.6 fewer laps at intercept (baseline), than did healthy children without ADHD (t 878 = −6.20, P < .001). However, no significant differences emerged for time (slope). In addition, no significant interactions were found for ADHD with age, sex, sports participation, or body mass index. Conclusion: A diagnosis of ADHD, independent of selected predictor variables, explained lower PACER performance.

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

Object control skills (OCS) provide children the means to be physically active. However, gender equality in some OCS remains elusive. Particularly troublesome is the basic throwing pattern and, by extension, the striking pattern, both of which rely on forceful, rapid rotation of the pelvis, trunk, and shoulders. Some scholars argue that sex differences in throwing and striking are rooted in human evolution. The purpose of this study was to examine development of throwing and striking at the fundamental movement level. The design was multi-cohort sequential: 280 boys and girls grades K–8 (ages 4–15) were tested up to three times per year for 5 years on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was applied to analyze individual growth curves. As anticipated, significant (p < .001) age-related gains were found for throwing and striking. In terms of sex (biology) or gender (sociocultural) differences, boys performed better longitudinally at throwing (p < .05) and striking (p < .05). These results reinforce theories that girls may be disadvantaged in achieving proficiency in throwing and striking. Interventions designed to enhance development of these skills should be in place long before grade 4, when most physical education curricula transitions to games and sports.

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Walter E. Davis, Boni Boswell, Allen W. Burton, Stephen A. Butterfield, Pat DiRocco, Susan J. Hall, Gary Kamen, Jeff McCubbin, Wayne Munson and Terry L. Rizzo

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Walter E. Davis, Susan K. Aufderheide, Boni Boswell, Marcel Bouffard, Stephen A. Butterfield, Diane H. Craft, Jim DePaepe, Gail Dummer, Michael Horvat, Gary Kamen, Wendell Liemohn, Richard D. MacNeil, Terry Rizzo, Paul R. Surburg and Garth Tymeson