This paper presents a novel theoretical conceptualization of football clubs and empirical evidence as to how supporter groups, owners, and others engaged to resolve threats to their club. We use boundary theory to understand the evolution of two football clubs’ ownership, financing, and governance structures and demonstrate how the blurring of club boundaries was linked to engagements in interface areas between the club and other social groups. We argue that the appropriateness of different combinations of ownership, financing, and governance practices should be evaluated in terms of how they support effective engagement spaces that negotiate relationships with codependent social groups. Conceptualizing football clubs as boundary objects provides some specific insights into changes observed in Scottish football clubs. However, this approach is relevant to other situations in which club success is dependent on cooperative engagements with multiple social groups that have both convergent and divergent interests in the club.
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Andrew Adams, Stephen Morrow, and Ian Thomson
Stephen H. Wong, Clyde Williams, and Neville Adams
This randomized, double-blind study examined the effects of rehydration per se and rehydration plus carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during recovery (REC) on subsequent endurance running capacity. Nine men ran at 70% V̇O2max on a level treadmill for 90 min (Tl) on two occasions, followed by a 4 hour REC and a further exhaustive run at the same speed (T2). During the first 3 hours of REC, subjects drank either a 6.9% CHO-electrolyte solution (CE) or a CHO- and electrolyte-free sweetened placebo (PL) every 30 min. Volumes prescribed were 200% of the fluid lost after Tl. but the actual volume of fluid ingested during the REC ranged from 113–200% and 88.5–200% of the body mass lost for the CE and PL trials (NS). However, positive fluid balance was found in both trials after REC. During T2. run time was 24.3 ± 4.4 min longer in the CE trial (69.3 ± 5.5 vs. 45.0 ± 4.2 min; p < .05). Higher blood glucose concentrations were observed throughout REC in the CE trial. These results suggest that ingesting a CHO-electrolyte solution is more effective in restoring endurance capacity compared to the same large volume of placebo, even though complete rehydration was achieved in both trials.
Stephen Adams, Courtney W. Mason, and Michael A. Robidoux
Ice hockey is known for its speed, skill and aggression. This paper uses an analyses of injuries in boys’ minor leagues and primary documents to examine competing discourses that surround participant safety which give meaning to broader hockey practices. We problematize a prevailing discourse that preserves the physicality of Canadian hockey and an emerging reverse discourse that prioritizes player safety. Theoretically informed by Foucault’s concepts of discourse, knowledge and power relations, we interpret the relationships between these two competing discursive streams which have created a public controversy, particularly concerning body checking, and intensified a polarizing national debate. Ultimately, we argue that these discourses impact the implementation of progressive injury prevention initiatives in minor hockey and youth sport.
Le hockey sur glace est réputé pour être rapide, technique et violent. Cet article utilise une analyse des blessures et documents de ligues mineures masculines afin d’examiner les discours qui circulent à propos de la sécurité des participants et qui sont reliés aux pratiques plus générales du sport. Nous mettons en évidence un discours dominant qui préserve la physicalité du hockey canadien et un discours contraire émergeant qui priorise la sécurité des joueurs. En nous appuyant au niveau théorique sur les concepts foucaldiens de discours, savoir et relations de pouvoir, nous interprétons les relations entre ces deux courants discursifs en compétition qui ont créé une controverse publique, particulièrement en ce qui concerne les mises en échec, et intensifié un débat national polarisé. En bout de ligne, nous avançons que ces discours influencent l’implantation d’initiatives progressistes de prévention des blessures dans le hockey mineur et le sport pour les jeunes.