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Stephen C. Anderson

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Stephen J. Langsner and Stephen C. Anderson

The impact of an outdoor challenge education program on self-esteem and locus of control of children with behavior disorders was investigated. The subjects consisted of four self-contained elementary special education classrooms of boys with behavior disorders. The experimental group consisted of two classrooms (N = 14), and the control group consisted of two classrooms (N = 17). An untreated control group design with pretest and post-test, expanded by the researcher to include two additional groups (experimental and control) without a pretest, was employed as a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design. There were no significant differences in either self-esteem or locus of control between the control and experimental groups as a consequence of the outdoor challenge program.

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Stephen C. Anderson and Lawrence R. Allen

A 9-week leisure education program to increase activity involvement and social interaction of institutionalized mentally retarded adults was investigated. A disproportional stratified (by residential unit) random sampling technique was employed to select 40 subjects from a total population of 243 mentally retarded persons. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The hypotheses were that there would be no significant increase in activity involvement or social interaction of the subjects who participated in the treatment. Four ANCOVAs were conducted utilizing frequency and duration as the dependent variables for both social interaction and activity involvement. Length of institutionalization was the covariate. The grouping variables were treatment/control and level of retardation. The findings revealed the treatment had a significant effect only on frequency of activity involvement.