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Stephen D. Patterson and Susan C. Gray

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on performance after prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 d apart. On each occasion, participants completed five 15-min periods of intermittent variable-speed running, interspersed with periods of walking (Part A), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (Part B). Participants consumed either a CHO gel or placebo (PLA) immediately before exercise (0.89 mL/kg body mass [BM]) and every 15 min thereafter (0.35 mL/kg BM). In addition, water was consumed at a rate of 5 mL/kg BM before and 2 mL/kg BM every 15 min during exercise. Blood glucose levels were higher (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60 min of exercise and at exhaustion in CHO than in PLA. During Part B, run time to exhaustion was longer (P < 0.05) in the CHO trial (CHO 6.1 ± 1.3 min vs. PLA 4.2 ± 1.2 min). These results indicate that ingesting a CHO gel, along with water, improves performance after prolonged intermittent running in healthy male subjects, possibly by maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise.

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Stephen D. Patterson and Richard A. Ferguson

The response of calf-muscle strength, resting blood flow, and postocclusive blood flow (PObf) were investigated after 4 wk of low-load resistance training (LLRT) with and without blood-flow restriction in a matched-leg design. Ten untrained older individuals age 62–73 yr performed unilateral plantar-flexion LLRT at 25% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). One limb was trained with normal blood flow and the other had blood flow restricted using a pressure cuff above the knee. 1RM, isometric maximal voluntary contraction, and isokinetic strength at 0.52 rad/s increased (p < .05) more after LLRT with blood-flow restriction than with normal blood flow. Peak PObf increased (p < .05) after LLRT with blood-flow restriction, compared with no change after LLRT with normal blood flow. These results suggest that 4 wk of LLRT with blood-flow restriction may be beneficial to older individuals to improve strength and blood-flow parameters.

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson and Brook Galna

Purpose: Regulation of power output during cycling encompasses the integration of internal and external demands to maximize performance. However, relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to the external demands of outdoor cycling. The authors compared the mean power output and the magnitude of power-output variability and structure during a 20-min time trial performed indoors and outdoors. Methods: Twenty male competitive cyclists (V˙O2max 60.4 [7.1] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed 2 randomized maximal 20-min time-trial tests: outdoors at a cycle-specific racing circuit and indoors on a laboratory-based electromagnetically braked training ergometer, 7 d apart. Power output was sampled at 1 Hz and collected on the same bike equipped with a portable power meter in both tests. Results: Twenty-minute time-trial performance indoor (280 [44] W) was not different from outdoor (284 [41] W) (P = .256), showing a strong correlation (r = .94; P < .001). Within-persons SD was greater outdoors (69 [21] W) than indoors (33 [10] W) (P < .001). Increased variability was observed across all frequencies in data from outdoor cycling compared with indoors (P < .001) except for the very slowest frequency bin (<0.0033 Hz, P = .930). Conclusions: The findings indicate a greater magnitude of variability in power output during cycling outdoors. This suggests that constraints imposed by the external environment lead to moderate- and high-frequency fluctuations in power output. Therefore, indoor testing protocols should be designed to reflect the external demands of cycling outdoors.