Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.
Daniel Memmert and Stephen Harvey
The purpose of this article is to discuss some concerns with the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). This review of the GPAI includes five perceived problems with the GPAI scoring and coding system: (1) calculation of individual and overall game performance indices, (2) use of game involvement versus game performance index to analyze game performance, (3) observer reliability, (4) nonlinearity, and (5) usefulness of action. In this article, we suggest a reexamination of the GPAI scoring and coding system that will lead to more efficient use of this game performance instrument. Some of the suggested modifications can be implemented quickly, whereas others need further research.
Stephen Harvey and Brendon Hyndman
Purpose: To date, there have been limited investigations relating to physical education (PE) professionals’ engagement in the use of Twitter. Consequently, the aim of the study was to investigate the reasons PE professionals use Twitter, with questions underpinned by Casey, Goodyear, and Armour’s three-level conceptual classification framework of Pedagogies of Technology. Method: The application of Leximancer text mining software was uniquely employed to text mine the survey data to determine the key themes and concepts. Results: It was discovered that PE professionals perceived the Twitter platform to be highly valuable to connect with others in the profession, learn from others, and share ideas (both within schools and more broadly) via a convenient, usable form of technology. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding the reasons PE professionals use Twitter can provide a broader understanding for those contemplating the utilization of this platform and inform future Twitter/social media research directions for the field of PE.
Brendon P. Hyndman and Stephen Harvey
Purpose: Limited research has been conducted relating to the use of social media during health and physical education teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate preservice teachers’ perceptions of the value of using Twitter for health and physical education teacher education. Methods: Preservice teachers completed a qualitatively designed survey. Thematic analyses were conducted via Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software, aligned to self-determination theory. Results: Twitter was perceived to be valuable for the following motivational components: (a) autonomy (choice over professional development, latest ideas, and learning flexibility), (b) relatedness (enhancing communication, tailored collaborations, and receiving practical support), and (c) competence (transferring ideas to classes, increasing technological competence, and keeping ahead of other teachers). Yet there were concerns due to Twitter’s public exposure to undesired Twitter users (relatedness) and how to navigate the platform (competence). Discussion/Conclusions: The study provides guidance to health and physical education teacher education providers on how digital learning via Twitter can meet preservice teachers’ learning needs.
Stephen Harvey and Jeffrey P. Carpenter
Purpose: This descriptive study investigates the genesis and change in physical educators’ social media use for professional development and learning. Method: Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 48 physical educators who had actively used various social media professionally for an extended period of time. The data were analyzed inductively and aligned to the basic psychological needs defined by self-determination theory: relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results: Building relationships with a trusted network of people and opportunities to express their autonomy were important drivers in the participants’ genesis and continued use of social media. Developing competence at both the start and throughout their social media journey was also critical. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings provide a starting point for in-depth research on the motivational characteristics underpinning physical educators’ reasons for starting and continuing to use social media for professional development and learning, and how these might change over time based on different psychological needs.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
Purpose: This study investigated the benefits and challenges described by physical educators who had actively used social media professionally for an average of more than 6 years. Method: The data were collected through semistructured individual and focus group interviews, with an international sample of physical educators (N = 48). The data were analyzed through an open coding process to develop themes. Results: Diverse benefits and challenges associated with social media use were identified and organized in alignment with a social ecological model. The benefits included enhanced knowledge, skills, teaching, student learning, and access to professional community. The challenges included managing the quantity of available content, the risks of context collapse, and navigating the cultures and discourse of online spaces. Discussion: A deeper understanding of the benefits and challenges of physical educators’ social media use can enable stakeholders to act in more strategic ways as they navigate the promise and the peril of social media.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
This chapter compares and contrasts the findings of the preceding empirical monograph chapters. The findings from these chapters are addressed in terms of how they illustrate the positives, negatives, and tensions that can be associated with social media use for professional development and learning. Across the various chapters, similarities in findings as well as apparent contradictions are discussed. By illuminating the potential and the perils of social media use and misuse, a pragmatic summary of the findings can inform wise use and nonuse of social media for professional development and learning by those involved in the field of physical education and sport pedagogy. Although prior literature and this monograph have begun to address some aspects of social media use in physical education and sport pedagogy, much remains to be explored. Topics, social media tools, methods, and theory that could be taken up or expanded upon in future research to advance the field are suggested.
Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels
Falls among older adults remain a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited 107 community-dwelling participants aged 65 years and older in the Netherlands to determine the relationship between bicycling and falls risk factors. Participants completed three questionnaires on cycling behavior and balance confidence, and also undertook five falls-related physical performance tasks encompassing tests of balance, strength, gait, and endurance. On average, current bicyclists showed significantly better scores in all physical tasks and confidence compared with nonriders ranging from a 10% difference in 6-m walk time to a 141% difference in single-leg balance time (all ps = .01). Type of bike used and duration of bicycling displayed varied associations (.01 < ps < .79). Our findings suggest that bicycle riding warrants further prospective investigation for fall prevention and active aging.
Stephen Harvey, Obidiah Atkinson and Brendon P. Hyndman
Purpose: To investigate sports coaches’ Twitter use. Methods: Coaches (N = 310) from 22 countries and a range of sports completed an online survey. Quantitative survey data were analyzed descriptively and triangulated with qualitative data using Leximancer (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) text mining software. Results: Most participants reported using Twitter for ≥3 years and accessed the platform multiple times per day. More than half participants agreed that using Twitter had positively impacted both their own confidence as a coach and their athletes/players/team’s performance. The strongest overall themes from the qualitative data revealed that Twitter helped sports coaches improve their practices through the sharing of information, connecting with other coaches, and building positivity into their interactions when supporting players. Discussion/Conclusion: Sports coaches perceive Twitter to be a highly valuable platform to network, collaborate, gain access to information, and share ideas and resources.
Stephen Harvey, John William Baird Lyle and Bob Muir
A defining element of coaching expertise is characterised by the coach’s ability to make decisions. Recent literature has explored the potential of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) as a useful framework for research into coaches’ in situ decision making behaviour. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the NDM paradigm offered a valid mechanism for exploring three high performance coaches’ decision-making behaviour in competition and training settings. The approach comprised three phases: 1) existing literature was synthesised to develop a conceptual framework of decision-making cues to guide and shape the exploration of empirical data; 2) data were generated from stimulated recall procedures to populate the framework; 3) existing theory was combined with empirical evidence to generate a set of concepts that offer explanations for the coaches’ decision-making behaviour. Findings revealed that NDM offered a suitable framework to apply to coaches’ decision-making behaviour. This behaviour was guided by the emergence of a slow, interactive script that evolves through a process of pattern recognition and/or problem framing. This revealed ‘key attractors’ that formed the initial catalyst and the potential necessity for the coach to make a decision through the breaching of a ‘threshold’. These were the critical factors for coaches’ interventions.