The purpose of this research was to identify if three different intensities of resistance exercise would acutely and differentially effect the systemic release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myoglobin in older men (≥65 years). A total of 11 older men performed isovolume resistance exercise on six different apparatuses at three different intensities (144 reps at 60%, 120 reps at 72%, and 108 reps at 80% of 1-repetition maximum), with the intensity order randomly allocated, to determine the systemic release of IL-6 and myoglobin in the blood. Blood samples were collected at six time points, including preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr postexercise. There were no differences between intensity levels; therefore, data for all conditions were pooled. IL-6 did not show any change from baseline values throughout all time points (p > .05), whereas myoglobin was elevated at 3, 6, and 24 hr postexercise and returned to baseline after 48 hr (p < .05).
Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht
Jonathan. P. Little, Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Candow, Stephen M. Cornish and Philip D. Chilibeck
Creatine (Cr) supplementation increases muscle mass, strength, and power. Arginine α-ketoglutarate (A-AKG) is a precursor for nitric oxide production and has the potential to improve blood flow and nutrient delivery (i.e., Cr) to muscles. This study compared a commercial dietary supplement of Cr, A-AKG, glutamine, taurine, branchedchain amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides with Cr alone or placebo on exercise performance and body composition. Thirty-five men (~23 yr) were randomized to Cr + A-AKG (0.1 g · kg−1 · d−1 Cr + 0.075 g · kg−1 · d−1 A-AKG, n = 12), Cr (0.1 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 11), or placebo (1 g · kg−1 · d−1 sucrose, n = 12) for 10 d. Body composition, muscle endurance (bench press), and peak and average power (Wingate tests) were measured before and after supplementation. Bench-press repetitions over 3 sets increased with Cr + A-AKG (30.9 ==6.6 → 34.9 ± 8.7 reps; p < .01) and Cr (27.6 ± 5.9 → 31.0 ± 7.6 reps; p < .01), with no change for placebo (26.8 ± 5.0 → 27.1 ± 6.3 reps). Peak power significantly increased in Cr + A-AKG (741 ± 112 → 794 ± 92 W; p < .01), with no changes in Cr (722 ± 138 → 730 ± 144 W) and placebo (696 ± 63 → 705 ± 77 W). There were no differences in average power between groups over time. Only the Cr-only group increased total body mass (79.9 ± 13.0→81.1 ± 13.8 kg; p < .01), with no significant changes in lean-tissue or fat mass. These results suggest that Cr alone and in combination with A-AKG improves upper body muscle endurance, and Cr + A-AKG supplementation improves peak power output on repeated Wingate tests.
Stephen M. Cornish, Darren G. Candow, Nathan T. Jantz, Philip D. Chilibeck, Jonathan P. Little, Scott Forbes, Saman Abeysekara and Gordon A. Zello
The authors examined the combined effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), creatine (C), and whey protein (P) supplementation during strength training.
Sixty-nine participants (52 men, 17 women; M ± SD age 22.5 ± 2.5 yr) were randomly assigned (double-blind) to 1 of 3 groups: CCP (6 g/d CLA + 9 g/d C + 36 g/d P; n = 22), CP (C + P + placebo oil; n = 25), or P (P + placebo oil; n = 22) during 5 wk of strength training (4–5 sets, 6–12 repetitions, 6 d/wk). Measurements were taken for body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), muscle thickness (ultrasound) of the flexors and extensors of the elbow and knee, 1-repetitionmaximum (1-RM) strength (leg press and bench press), urinary markers of bone resorption (N-telopeptides, NTx), myofibrillar protein catabolism (3-methylhistidine; 3-MH), oxidative stress (8-isoprostanes), and kidney function (microalbumin) before and after training.
Contrast analyses indicated that the CCP group had a greater increase in bench-press (16.2% ± 11.3% vs. 9.7% ± 17.0%; p < .05) and legpress (13.1% ± 9.9% vs. 7.7% ± 14.2%; p < .05) strength and lean-tissue mass (2.4% ± 2.8% vs. 1.3% ± 4.1%; p < .05) than the other groups combined. All groups increased muscle thickness over time (p < .05). The relative change in 3-MH (CCP –4.7% ± 70.2%, CP –0.4% ± 81.4%, P 20.3% ± 75.2%) was less in the groups receiving creatine (p < .05), with the difference for NTx also close to significance (p = .055; CCP–3.4% ± 66.6%, CP–3.9% ± 64.9%, P 26.0% ± 63.8%). There were no changes in oxidative stress or kidney function.
Combining C, CLA, and P was beneficial for increasing strength and lean-tissue mass during heavy resistance training.