Professional football (soccer) in Europe has changed dramatically in the past two decades, largely due to the escalation of media rights deals. Many professional football clubs are now complex businesses, intrinsically concerned with financial matters. Within the rapidly changing business context of football, the aim of this research is to further understand the main issues that are related to a career as a manager. This paper has five sections: (1) we offer an appraisal of the general literature as it applies to professional football management; (2) we introduce the theoretical focus of the article with specific reference to the “career” and describe the context and background to the research; (3) we describe the research methodology and present and discuss the research results, which center on the career development of the manager; the position of a manager in organizational structures, and how the changing organization affects the role of manager; (4) we set out the conclusions and implications of our research; and (5) we offer our plans to progress this research, enabling a new body of knowledge to be developed on this specialized role.
Stephen Morrow and Brian Howieson
Andrew Adams, Stephen Morrow and Ian Thomson
This paper presents a novel theoretical conceptualization of football clubs and empirical evidence as to how supporter groups, owners, and others engaged to resolve threats to their club. We use boundary theory to understand the evolution of two football clubs’ ownership, financing, and governance structures and demonstrate how the blurring of club boundaries was linked to engagements in interface areas between the club and other social groups. We argue that the appropriateness of different combinations of ownership, financing, and governance practices should be evaluated in terms of how they support effective engagement spaces that negotiate relationships with codependent social groups. Conceptualizing football clubs as boundary objects provides some specific insights into changes observed in Scottish football clubs. However, this approach is relevant to other situations in which club success is dependent on cooperative engagements with multiple social groups that have both convergent and divergent interests in the club.
Elizabeth Y. Brown, James R. Morrow Jr. and Stephen M. Livingston
The purpose of the present study was to determine if completion of a 14-week conditioning course affected the physical and total self-concepts of college-age women. Analysis of variance was used to contrast experimental and control groups of 50 subjects each on selected subscales of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Results indicated that the women showed significant differences in self-concept upon completion of the conditioning program; however, effects were not generalizable to all dimensions of self-concept. Implications are that training programs may be beneficial in their impact on selected aspects of the self-concept of women as well as the physiological parameters typically affected by conditioning programs. Self-concept profiles are developed for those women who entered the program as well as for those who completed the program.