Previous reviews have highlighted the importance of self-efficacy beliefs in maintaining adequate levels of childhood physical activity (PA), but variable findings with different age groups and measures of PA indicate the need to quantify the extant literature. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the relationship between adolescents’ barrier self-efficacy (BSE) and PA behavior using a random-effects model and to examine age and type of PA measurement as potential relationship moderators. A systematic online database review yielded 38 articles up to June 2018. A small to moderate correlation between BSE beliefs and PA was noted, although the variability was considerable. Age and measurement timing were not significant moderators, but the type of measurement was a significant relationship moderator. This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of BSE as a psychosocial correlate to PA behavior in young people. There is a need for further BSE–PA research with attention to measurement technique and developmental differences.
Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger, and Karin A. Pfeiffer
Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler, and Deborah L. Feltz
Background: The positive role of self-efficacy in directing a wide range of health-related interventions has been well documented, including those targeting an increase in physical activity. However, rarely do researchers control the influence of past performance and past self-efficacy perception ratings when exploring the interaction of self-efficacy and performance, allowing for a refined understanding of this relationship and the unique contribution of each factor. Methods: A residualized past performance, residualized self-efficacy hierarchical regression model was used to examine the effect of prior past performance and pre-exercise self-efficacy on performance with a health-related task (12 aerobic exercise cycling sessions). Results: The previous day’s residualized performance was a significant predictor of performance, as was same-day residualized self-efficacy (P < .001). However, residualized self-efficacy became a stronger predictor over time. Conclusions: While maintaining a consistent level of moderate–vigorous physical activity over 12 exercise sessions, participants increased their ratings of task self-efficacy, explaining an increasing portion of the variance in the self-efficacy–performance relationship days 9 to 12.
Tayo Moss, Stephen Samendinger, Norbert L. Kerr, Joseph Cesario, Alan L. Smith, Deborah J. Johnson, and Deborah L. Feltz
The authors describe two research experiments exploring the influence of race on the Köhler motivation gain effect with exercise tasks. Experiment 1 tested whether partner racial dissimilarity affects individual performance. Experiment 2 created a team identity recategorization intervention to potentially counter the influence on performance observed in Experiment 1. White male participants were partnered with either a Black or Asian partner (Experiment 1) or with a Black partner utilizing team names and shirt colors as a team identity recategorization strategy (Experiment 2). Racially dissimilar dyads completed two sets of abdominal plank exercises with a Köhler conjunctive task paradigm (stronger partner; team performance outcome dependent upon the weaker-ability participant’s performance). The results of Experiment 1 suggest attenuation of the previously successful group motivation gain effect in the racially dissimilar condition. The simple recategorization strategy utilized in Experiment 2 appeared to reverse motivation losses under conjunctive-task conditions in racially dissimilar exercise dyads.