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Steven J. Danish and Bruce D. Male

Current discussions concerning the eligibility and qualifications of clinical practitioners in sport psychology have ignored the more fundamental question of defining the proper functions of a sport psychologist. The prevailing remedial intervention models presently in use in sport psychology are examined and found to be not in the best interests of either the individual athlete or for the development of sport psychology as a separate discipline. A human development framework and education model of intervention are offered as a means of providing commonalities between applied researchers and clinical practitioners.

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Patrick H.F. Baillie and Steven J. Danish

Transition out of a career in sports has been suggested as being a difficult and disruptive process for many athletes. An early and enduring identification, familiarity, and preference for the role of athlete may cause its loss to be a significant stressor for the elite, Olympic, or professional athlete. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various aspects of the career transition process in sports, beginning with early identification with the role of athlete and continuing through retirement from active participation in competitive sports. Athletes are often poorly prepared for the off-time event of leaving sports, and traditional theories of retirement may not be suitable. People associated with athletes (coaches, peers, management, family members, and sport psychologists) and athletes themselves need to be aware of the potential for difficulty during their career transition.

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Robert J. Marcello, Steven J. Danish, and Arnold L. Stolberg

Substance abuse by the collegiate athlete has become a major concern. Drug testing programs are viewed as one method of combatting this problem; however, more emphasis should be placed upon developing effective drug prevention programs. The current study addresses this need by (a) designing a multifocused prevention program specifically for student-athletes based on the previous literature, (b) evaluating its overall effectiveness as well as that of its individual components, and (c) identifying factors associated with preintervention usage patterns of student-athletes for the purpose of guiding future program development efforts. Although 110 student-athletes indicated a willingness to participate in the study, only 58 completed the assessment packet. These 58 were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Few differences were found between the treatment and control groups. Perhaps the most important finding was that social-environmental factors and pro-usage attitudes were related to previous patterns of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use prior to the student-athlete’s arrival at college. Results are discussed in terms of their impact upon future program development and evaluation.

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Steven J. Danish, Albert J. Petitpas, and Bruce D. Hale

In this article Life Development Intervention (LDI) is described. It is an intervention based on a developmental-educational framework that fits the needs of practitioners from varied backgrounds and disciplines and opens the path to better communication among these practitioners. LDI can be used to enhance athletes’ performance both inside and outside sports. The assumptions underlying LDI are presented, the role of the LDI specialist is examined, and a framework for selecting intervention strategies is outlined. Particular attention is given to the importance of learning how to teach the transfer skills from one domain to another.

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Albert J. Petitpas, Burt Giges, and Steven J. Danish

The quality of the counseling relationship has proven to be the most significant factor in facilitating treatment adherence and positive counseling outcomes. The authors of the present article contend that the dynamics of the sport psychologist-athlete relationship are quite similar to those of counselor-client relationship. They offer suggestions for the training of sport and exercise psychology graduate students that borrow extensively from the research and training strategies used in counselor education. In particular, a possible interface between sport psychology and counseling psychology training and practice is suggested, a brief overview of research on the qualities of the counseling relationship is presented, and several training strategies are provided.

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Judy M. Chartrand, Douglas P. Jowdy, and Steven J. Danish

The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS R-5; Mahoney, Gabriel, & Perkins, 1987) contains 45 items designed to measure six psychological skills related to athletic performance. The present study examined selected psychometric properties of the PSIS R-5. Results of confirmatory factor analyses, conducted using intercollegiate athletes (N = 340), indicated that the predicted six-factor model did not fit the data. Model modifications were examined but failed to provide an adequate fit. Internal consistency estimates for five of the six scales also indicated poor reliability. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of the PSIS R-5. Emphasis is placed on the need to carefully evaluate the psychometric characteristics of instruments that are designed for use in applied sport psychology.