Purpose: The purpose this investigation was to explore the learning experiences of two teachers from different secondary schools in Scotland as they engaged in their respective action research projects to learn to apply teaching personal and social responsibility in physical education. Method: Both teachers worked within a small community of practice and used qualitative methods to gather data to inform their inquiry. The teachers shared their findings with their coauthors and engaged in further, more focused analyses to explore and understand their learning experiences and the learning experiences of their pupils. Results: Both teachers found that their learning in context was much slower and more challenging than first expected. Over time, both teachers learned to set “new” learning objectives, applied “new” teaching strategies, talked more to their pupils, and reflected with others to evaluate their learning. Discussion/Conclusion: When teachers are committed to their own learning and when the subject of their learning aligns with their core values, professional needs, and the needs of their pupils, then pedagogical change is possible.
Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright and Stuart Robertson
Patrick Gray, Andrew Chappell, Alison McE Jenkinson, Frank Thies and Stuart R. Gray
Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils—although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.
Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan
Physical activity is associated with greater independence in old age. However, little is known about the effect of physical activity level and activity type on activities of daily living (ADL). This review systematically analyzed the effects of physical activity level and activity type on ADL in older adults (mean age, 60+). Electronic search methods (up to March 2015) identified 47 relevant, randomized controlled trials. Random effects meta-analyses revealed significant, beneficial effects of physical activity on ADL physical performance (SMD = 0.72, 95% CI [0.45, 1.00]; p < .01), with the largest effects found for moderate physical activity levels, and for activity types with high levels of mental (e.g., memory, attention), physical (e.g., coordination, balance) and social (e.g., social interaction) demands. Inconsistent effects were observed on self-reported ADL measures. Interventions that include moderate physical activity levels with high mental, physical, and social demands may produce the greatest benefits on ADL physical performance.