The positions of EMG electrodes over the knee extensor muscles were examined in 19 healthy men using MR images; electrodes were placed according to the SENIAM (surface electromyography for non-invasive assessment of muscles) guidelines. From axial images, the medial and lateral borders of the muscles were identified, and the arc length of the muscle surface was measured. The electrode location was expressed as a percentage value from the muscle’s medial border. EMGs were recorded during isometric maximal contraction, squat jumps, and countermovement jumps and analyzed for cross-correlation. The results showed that variations in lateral positioning were greatest in vastus medialis (47% SD 11) and rectus femoris (68% SD 15). In vastus lateralis, the electrode was usually placed close to the rectus femoris (19% SD 6). The peak cross-correlation coefficient varied between 0.15 and 0.68, but was not associated with electrode location. It is recommended that careful consideration is given to the medial-lateral positioning of the vastus lateralis electrodes especially, so that the electrodes are positioned over the mid-muscle rather than in close proximity to rectus femoris.
Taija Finni and Sulin Cheng
Miia Suuriniemi, Harri Suominen, Anitta Mahonen, Markku Alén and Sulin Cheng
This follow-up study confirms our previous findings that the ER-α PvuII polymorphism (Pp) modulates the association between exercise and bone mass. The differences in bone properties of girls with consistently low physical activity (LLPA) and consistently high physical activity (HHPA) were evident only in those bearing the heterozygote ER-α genotype (Pp). In particular, areal bone mineral density of the total femur, bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density of the femoral neck, and bone mineral content and cortical thickness of the tibia shaft were significantly (p < .05) lower in the Pp girls with LLPA than in their HHPA counterparts. These findings might partly explain the genetic basis of human variation associated with exercise training.