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Susan B. Sisson and Stephanie T. Broyles

Background:

The primary and secondary purposes were to examine social-ecological correlates of excessive TV viewing (>2hr/day) in American children 1) between race/ethnic groups and 2) between boys and girls.

Methods:

Children (n = 48,505) aged 6 to 18 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health were included. Social-ecological correlates included individual-, family-, and community-level variables. Logistic regression analyses were used for race/ethnicity [Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, other] and sex groups (boys, girls), to determine associated correlates.

Results:

By race/ethnicity, 16.6%, 37.8%, and 24.5% of NHW, NHB, and Hispanic exceeded recommendations. For boys and girls, 23.7% and 18.2% viewed excessive TV. Having a TV in the bedroom and higher poverty level were associated with excessive TV in all groups. Differences by race/ethnicity were age, sex, TV in the bedroom, extracurricular activities, physical activity, adequate sleep, family structure, family meals, knowing child’s friends, parent/ child communication, and neighborhood characteristics. Differences by sex were family structure, parent/ child communication, family meals, and neighborhood elements.

Conclusion:

Social-ecological correlates and associated prevalence of excessive TV viewing differed across subgroups. These specific correlates can be targeted in tailored interventions.

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Kathryn C. Nesbit, Thubi A. Kolobe, Sandra H. Arnold, Susan B. Sisson and Michael P. Anderson

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine how proximal (home) and distal (neighborhood) environmental characteristics interact to influence obesity in early and middle adolescents.

Methods:

This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health (NCSH). Participants were 39,542 children ages 11 to 17 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between adolescent obesity and environmental factors, the relative strength of these factors, and the influence of age and gender.

Results:

Proximal environmental factors were stronger correlates of adolescent obesity than distal environmental factors. Sedentary behavior related to TV watching time at home was the strongest correlate of adolescent obesity overall (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11–1.15). Parks and playgrounds (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.08–0.92), as well as recreation centers (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97) were significant distal environmental factor correlates. Girls and middle adolescents were at less risk for obesity than boys and early adolescents (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.68–0.82; OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68–0.96).

Conclusion:

The results of this study reveal the importance of proximal environmental characteristics on adolescent obesity relative to distal environmental characteristics. Obesity intervention strategies for adolescents should target sedentary behavior and opportunities for physical activity with a focus on early adolescents and boys.

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Susan B. Sisson, Stephanie T. Broyles, Birgitta L. Baker and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The purposes were 1) to determine if different leisure-time sedentary behaviors (LTSB), such as TV/video/video game viewing/playing (TV), reading for pleasure (reading), and nonschool computer usage, were associated with childhood overweight status, and 2) to assess the social-ecological correlates of LTSB.

Methods:

The analytic sample was 33,117 (16,952 boys and 16,165 girls) participants from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. The cut-point for excessive TV and nonschool computer usage was ≥ 2 hr/day. High quantities of daily reading for pleasure were classified as ≥ 31 min/day. Weighted descriptive characteristics were calculated on the sample (means ± SE or frequency). Logistic regression models were used to determine if the LTSB were associated with overweight status and to examine social-ecological correlates.

Results:

Over 35% of the sample was overweight. Odds of being overweight were higher in the 2 to 3 hr/day (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.76) and ≥ 4 hr/day (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.91) daily TV groups compared with none. Reading and nonschool computer usage was not associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

TV was associated with overweight classification; however, nonschool computer usage and reading were not. Several individual, family, and community correlates were associated with high volumes of daily TV viewing.

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Sarah M. Camhi, Susan B. Sisson, William D. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Objective physical activity data analyses focus on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) without considering lower intensity lifestyle-type activities (LA). We describe 1) quantity of LA (minutes and steps per day) across demographic groups, 2) proportion of LA to total physical activity, and 3) relationships between LA and MVPA using NHANES 2005−2006 accelerometer adult data (n = 3744).

Methods:

LA was defined as 760 to 2019 counts per minute (cpm) and MVPA as ≥2020 cpm. LA was compared within gender, ethnicity, age, and BMI groups. Regression analyses examined independent effects. Correlations were evaluated between LA and MVPA. All analyses incorporated sampling weights to represent national estimates.

Results:

Adults spent 110.4 ± 1.6 minutes and took 3476 ± 54 steps per day in LA. Similar to MVPA, LA was highest in men, Mexican Americans, and lowest in adults ≥60 years or obese. When LA was held constant, ethnic differences no longer predicted MVPA minutes, and age no longer predicted MVPA steps. LA and MVPA minutes (r = .84) and steps per day (r = .72) were significantly correlated, but attenuated with MVPA modified bouts (≥10 minutes sustained activity).

Conclusions:

LA accumulation differs between demographic subgroups and is related to MVPA: adults who spend more minutes and steps in MVPA also spend them in LA.

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Susan B. Sisson, Ashley E. Gibson, Kevin Short, Andrew W. Gardner, Teresa Whited, Candace Robledo and David M. Thompson

The purpose of this study was to determine if light physical activity (LPA) minimizes the impairment of cardiometabolic risk factors following a typical meal in adolescents. Eighteen adolescents (50% male, 14.8 ± 2.3 yrs) consumed a meal (32% fat, 14% protein, 53% carbohydrate), then completed a walking (1.5mph for 45 min of each hour) or sitting treatment for 3 hr in randomized order on separate days. Following the meal, HDL cholesterol declined 4.8% but remained higher during walking at 3 hr (42.1mg/dl ± 9.3) than sitting (8.4% decline; 40.5mg/dL ± 9.9; treatment × time interaction, p < .03). The 3-hr insulin was lower after walking (24.8μIU/ml ± 33.4) than sitting (37.8μIU/ml ± 34.7; treatment × time interaction, p < .0001). Triglycerides increased by ~40% above baseline at 1 and 2 hr, with higher values for walking (treatment × time interaction, p < .02). However by 3 hr, triglycerides were not different from baseline. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses were not significantly different between treatments for any outcomes. Although minor, LPA appears to mitigate the undesirable postprandial changes in HDL cholesterol and insulin but not triglycerides, following a typical meal in adolescents.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Susan B. Sisson, Emily Hill Guseman, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Sandra H. Arnold, Jennifer Graef and Allen Knehans

Background/Context: Children without siblings (singletons) have higher rates of obesity than do children with siblings (nonsingletons). Higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and less sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with lower childhood obesity. Purpose: To examine the difference in PA and SB between singleton and nonsingleton children. Methods: Mothers of children ages 5.0–7.9 years old who were singletons or nonsingletons with a sibling between the ages of 2.0 and 4.9 years old were recruited. Height, weight, and waist circumference of the 5.0- to 7.9-year-old children were measured, and age and sex percentiles were calculated. Accelerometry measured SB and PA, including light PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and counts per minute. Results: Fifty-six mother–child dyads (23 singletons and 33 nonsingletons) with an average child age of 5.7 (0.7) years participated. More singletons were classified as overweight or obese than were nonsingletons (49% vs 17%, P = .04). In adjusted linear models, singletons had less light PA per day (β = −38.1, SE = 19.2, P = .001) and more SB (β = 38.0, SE = 16.5, P = .02) than did nonsingletons, with no difference in moderate to vigorous PA or counts per minute. Conclusion: In this sample, singletons had higher obesity and lower light PA than did nonsingleton children. Investigation into differences in singleton/nonsingleton families, including family health behaviors, may help assess sibling influence in early behavior development.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Christopher Bolling, Carly Wright, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi I. Stanish and Susan B. Sisson

Background:

The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth.

Methods:

The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric.

Results:

Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators.

Conclusions:

Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright

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Kara N. Dentro, Kim Beals, Scott E. Crouter, Joey C. Eisenmann, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Susan B. Sisson, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Melinda S. Sothern and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The National Physical Activity Plan Alliance partnered with physical activity experts to develop a report card that provides a comprehensive assessment of physical activity among United States children and youth.

Methods:

The 2014 U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth includes 10 indicators: overall physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, active transportation, organized sport participation, active play, health-related fitness, family and peers, school, community and the built environment, and government strategies and investments. Data from nationally representative surveys were used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the physical activity indicators. The Committee used the best available data source to grade the indicators using a standard rubric.

Results:

Approximately one-quarter of children and youth 6 to 15 years of age were at least moderately active for 60 min/day on at least 5 days per week. The prevalence was lower among youth compared with younger children, resulting in a grade of D- for overall physical activity levels. Five of the remaining 9 indicators received grades ranging from B- to F, whereas there was insufficient data to grade 4 indicators, highlighting the need for more research in some areas.

Conclusions:

Physical activity levels among U.S. children and youth are low and sedentary behavior is high, suggesting that current infrastructure, policies, programs, and investments in support of children’s physical activity are not sufficient.