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Michael G. Miller, David C. Berry, Susan Bullard and Roger Gilders


Land and aquatic plyometrics have clinical relevance for exercise, sport performance, and rehabilitation, yet study is limited comparing both.


To compare the effects of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric-training programs on performance variables, muscle soreness, and range of motion (ROM).


Aquatic facility and biomechanics laboratory.


Forty subjects randomly assigned to 3 groups: land (n = 13), water (n = 13), and control (n = 14).

Main Outcome Measures:

Performance variables, muscle soreness, and ROM were measured before and after an 8-week training period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a Bonferroni post hoc test determined significance.


ANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups with respect to plantar-flexion ROM (P < .05). Paired t test determined that the aquatic group significantly increased muscle power pretest to posttest (P < .05).


Results indicate that aquatic plyometric training can be an alternative approach to enhancing performance.