Susan Brown, Linda Sharp and Dianna P. Gray
Edited by Dianna P. Gray
Stephen D. Patterson and Susan C. Gray
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on performance after prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 d apart. On each occasion, participants completed five 15-min periods of intermittent variable-speed running, interspersed with periods of walking (Part A), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (Part B). Participants consumed either a CHO gel or placebo (PLA) immediately before exercise (0.89 mL/kg body mass [BM]) and every 15 min thereafter (0.35 mL/kg BM). In addition, water was consumed at a rate of 5 mL/kg BM before and 2 mL/kg BM every 15 min during exercise. Blood glucose levels were higher (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60 min of exercise and at exhaustion in CHO than in PLA. During Part B, run time to exhaustion was longer (P < 0.05) in the CHO trial (CHO 6.1 ± 1.3 min vs. PLA 4.2 ± 1.2 min). These results indicate that ingesting a CHO gel, along with water, improves performance after prolonged intermittent running in healthy male subjects, possibly by maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise.
Digby Elliott, Susan Gray and Daniel J. Weeks
The present study was designed to determine whether the verbal-motor performance deficits sometimes exhibited by Down syndrome persons interfere with their capacity to acquire a novel motor task. Mentally handicapped adults with and without Down syndrome, as well as nonhandicapped adults, practiced a verbally cued three-element movement sequence. When the verbal cue was terminated during retention, Down syndrome subjects made no more errors and performed the motor sequence just as rapidly as did the other mentally handicapped adults. However, Down syndrome subjects took longer to organize and initiate their movements. Both mentally handicapped groups performed more poorly than nonhandicapped subjects. The results provide partial support for the notion that Down syndrome persons have difficulty organizing limb movements on the basis of verbal instruction.