In this study we examined the influences of graduate training, job characteristics, and collegial support on scholarly productivity across gender. A survey was distributed to 425 graduates from 13 major United States research institutions and 117 responded. Publication rate was predicted by the amount of research support from colleagues, the number of colleagues publishing one or more refereed articles per year, and the number of research projects the respondent (as a doctoral student) was involved in with the major professor. Differences were found in professors’ responses to rejected articles, with females significantly less likely to resubmit a rejected article. Therefore, it appears important to participate in many projects with one’s major professor while in graduate school, affiliate with a productive, supportive faculty, and to rewrite and resubmit rejected articles.
Susan K. Kovar and Virginia Overdorf
Gloria E. Napper-Owen, Susan K. Kovar, Kathy L. Ermler and Joella H. Mehrhof
Physical educators from randomly selected high schools (N = 180) in the AAHPERD Central District were surveyed via telephone regarding their required (9th grade) physical education programs. Four researchers scored the 180 instruments, and each instrument was scored independently with a 96% inter-rater reliability. For the entire sample, 52% of the activity units were team sports, 39% individual sports, 4% dance-gymnastics, and 4% adventure-cooperative-recreational. Of the 180 schools, 71% conducted programs in compliance with Title IX. Of the teachers interviewed, 88% of the females and 30% of the males taught outside their socially accepted areas, although they tended to conduct similar curricula. In general, schools delivered traditional multi-activity programs emphasizing team and lifetime sports, while 25% of the schools had programs with a primary emphasis on competitive, contact, male-oriented team activities. Thus, curricula tended to perpetuate the current socially constructed view of gender and physical activity.