Susanne Fuchs, Rudolph Sock and Yves Laprie
Britta Grimme, Susanne Fuchs, Pascal Perrier and Gregor Schöner
This paper presents a comparative conceptual review of speech and limb motor control. Speech is essentially cognitive in nature and constrained by the rules of language, while limb movement is often oriented to physical objects. We discuss the issue of intrinsic vs. extrinsic variables underlying the representations of motor goals as well as whether motor goals specify terminal postures or entire trajectories. Timing and coordination is recognized as an area of strong interchange between the two domains. Although coordination among different motor acts within a sequence and coarticulation are central to speech motor control, they have received only limited attention in manipulatory movements. The biomechanics of speech production is characterized by the presence of soft tissue, a variable number of degrees of freedom, and the challenges of high rates of production, while limb movements deal more typically with inertial constraints from manipulated objects. This comparative review thus leads us to identify many strands of thinking that are shared across the two domains, but also points us to issues on which approaches in the two domains differ. We conclude that conceptual interchange between the fields of limb and speech motor control has been useful in the past and promises continued benefit.
Susanne Fuchs, Guido Schuette, Hartmut Witte, and Carsten Oliver Tibesku
A new design of total knee prosthesis without anterior patellar flange was developed to preserve the anatomical shape of the patellofemoral joint. The aim of the current study was to experimentally compare patellofemoral contact area and pressure in a nonreplaced knee, in a knee after implantation of a conventionally designed total knee arthroplasty, and in a knee after implantation of the newly designed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange. Six cadaveric legs were examined before and after implantation of either a conventional or a newly developed total knee arthroplasty, both without patellar replacement. The essential change in design is the absence of an anterior patellar flange. Contact area and pressure were measured using pressure sensitive films in 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion and the results were compared between the different prosthesis designs and with the nonreplaced knee. The prosthesis without patellar flange showed less average and maximum pressure than the conventional prosthesis. Compared with the nonreplaced knee, the conventional prosthesis led to increased average and maximum pressure and decreased contact area. In an experimental test setup, the newly developed total knee arthroplasty without patellar flange showed reduced patello-femoral contact pressure in comparison with a total knee prosthesis with conventional patellofemoral design. This could possibly lead to a lower incidence of anterior knee complaints in patients.