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  • Author: Susumu S. Sawada x
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Susumu S. Sawada, I-Min Lee, Hisashi Naito, Koji Tsukamoto, Takashi Muto and Steven N. Blair

Background:

Limited data are available on the relationship between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Methods:

A cohort of 3792 Japanese men completed a medical examination that included MPF and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. MPF index composite score was calculated using Z-scores from vertical jump, sit-ups, side step, and functional reach tests.

Results:

The mean follow-up period was 187 months (15.6 years). There were 240 patients who developed type 2 diabetes during follow-up. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incidence of diabetes across baseline quartiles of MPF index composite score were obtained using the Cox proportional hazards model while adjusting for age, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and family history of diabetes. The relative risks for developing diabetes across quartiles of MPF index composite scores (lowest to highest) were 1.0 (referent), 1.15 (95% CI 0.83−1.60), 1.10 (0.78−1.55), and 0.57 (0.37−0.90) (P for trend = .061). These results were attenuated after adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness (P for trend = .125).

Conclusions:

This prospective study suggests that MPF is a predictor of type 2 diabetes, although its predictive ability was attenuated after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Naofumi Yamamoto, Mieko Shimada, Naoki Nakagawa, Susumu S. Sawada, Mamoru Nishimuta, Yasuo Kimura, Masaharu Ohashi, Hidenori Asai, Hideo Miyazaki, I-Min Lee, Steven N. Blair and Yutaka Yoshitake

Background:

Tracking refers to the tendency for an individual to maintain their rank within a group over time. This study longitudinally investigated the 8-year tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity among physically independent elderly Japanese people aged 72 to 80 years.

Methods:

Steps/day were measured when participants were aged 72 and assessed again after 2, 5, and 8 years. The number of participants with a 2-year follow-up (72 to 74 years) was 177 (101 males, 76 females), with a 5-year follow-up (72 to 77 years) was 183 people (110 males, 73 females), and with an 8-year follow-up (72 to 80 years) was 145 people (91 males, 54 females). Step counts were continuously measured for 1 week in January, April, July, and October during each year of assessment.

Results:

A high rank correlation coefficient for steps/day exceeding 0.60 was obtained at the 2-, 5- and 8-year follow-up examinations for both males and females.

Conclusion:

This study suggests that the rank within a group of pedometer-determined steps/day remains stable over up to 8 years in healthy Japanese people aged between 72 to 80 years old.

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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

Background: There are several studies on the relationship between low back pain and physical activity. However, the results of these studies vary, and the relationship between them remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between objectively measured physical activity and low back pain in Japanese men. Methods: The study included 4022 Japanese men [average age: 47 (10) y]. Daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity and step counts were measured using an accelerometer. Low back pain, drinking and smoking, and lifestyle-related diseases were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and step counts with persistent low back pain after adjusting for confounders. Results: Persistent low back pain was reported in 428 participants. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of presenting persistent low back pain across quartiles of amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity were 1.00 (reference); 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.70–1.22); 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.74–1.28); and 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.90); P for linearity = .012. Conclusion: We found a significant inverse relationship between objectively measured physical activity and persistent low back pain.