This paper provides a systematic review of current research findings using exergaming as a treatment for improving cognition and dual-task function in older adults. A literature search was conducted to collect exergaming intervention studies that were either randomized controlled or uncontrolled studies. Of the seven identified studies (five randomized controlled studies and two uncontrolled studies), three studies focused on cognitive function alone, two studies focused on dual-task function alone, and two studies measured both cognitive function and dual-task function. Current evidence supports that exergaming improves cognitive function and dual-task function, which potentially leads to fall prevention. However, it is unclear whether exergaming, which involves both cognitive input and physical exercise, has additional benefits compared with traditional physical exercise alone. Further studies should include traditional exercise as a control group to identify these potential, additional benefits.
Elisa F. Ogawa, Tongjian You and Suzanne G. Leveille
Suzanne G. Leveille, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield and Jack M. Guralnik
The authors examined the relationship between musculoskeletal pain, self-efficacy, attitudes and beliefs about exercise, and physical activity in 75- to 85-year-old adults. Participants rated their pain during the preceding month in their back, hips, knees, and feet on a scale of 0 to 10. Pain was categorized by number of sites of moderate to severe pain. Among the 325 participants, 42.8% reported at least moderate pain in at least 1 site. Having more pain sites was associated with younger age, lower income, depressed mood, and poorer self-rated health. Participants with more pain sites scored lower on exercise attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy, but the self-efficacy scale was most strongly associated with physical activity. Participants with 2–4 pain sites and low self-efficacy were >4 times as likely to be sedentary as those with no pain and high self-efficacy. These findings suggest that improving self-efficacy for exercise might be an important component of programs to increase physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain.