Clinical Scenario: Concussions are severely underreported, with only 47.3% of high school athletes reporting their concussion. The belief was that athletes who were better educated on the signs and symptoms and potential dangers of concussion would be more likely to report. However, literature has shown inconsistent evidence on the efficacy of concussion education, improving reporting behaviors. Factors such as an athlete’s attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control have shown promise in predicting intention to report concussions in athletes. Focused Clinical Question: Do attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control influence adolescent athletes’ intention to report? Summary of Key Findings: Three studies (1 randomized control and 2 cross-sectional surveys) were included. Across the 3 studies, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control positively influenced athletes’ reporting intention. The studies found that attitude toward concussion reporting and perceived behavioral control were the most influential predictors of reporting intention. Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate evidence to suggest that positive attitudes, supportive subjective norms, and increased perceived behavioral control influence reporting intention in secondary school athletes. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that positive attitudes, supportive subjective norms, and increased perceived behavioral control positively influence concussion reporting intention in secondary school athletes.
Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt
Christopher P. Tomczyk, George Shaver, and Tamerah N. Hunt
Clinical Scenario: Anxiety is a mental disorder that affects a large portion of the population and may be problematic when evaluating brain injuries such as concussion. The reliance of cognitive testing in concussion protocols call for the examination of potential cognitive alterations commonly seen in athletes with anxiety. Focused Clinical Question: Does anxiety affect neuropsychological assessments in healthy college athletes? Summary of Key Findings: Three studies were included: 1 cross-sectional study and 2 prospective cohort studies. One study examined the effect of a range of psychological issues on concussion baseline testing in college athletes. Another study examined the effect of anxiety on reaction time both before and after sport competition in college-aged athletes. The final study examined the effects of psychosocial issues on reaction time during demanding tasks in college athletes. The first study reported slower simple and complex reaction times in athletes with anxiety. The second study found that athletes with high trait anxiety have slower reaction times both before and after competition. The third study reported that demanding tasks led to increased state anxiety which slowed reaction time. Overall, all 3 studies support the adverse effect anxiety can have on cognitive testing in athletes. Clinical Bottom Line: College athletes who present with anxiety at baseline may be susceptible to decreased performance on neuropsychological assessments. Strength of Recommendation: There is level B evidence that anxiety in healthy college athletes can impact neuropsychological assessments, and level C evidence that anxiety at baseline concussion assessment impacts neuropsychological testing in college athletes.