In this article, the authors honor Catherine D. Ennis’s legacy by highlighting her unique and significant contributions to physical education research on curriculum and instruction. First, they discuss Ennis’s curricular philosophy and her empirical work along her career path. Then they review the major school-based curricular interventions she implemented, including the Movement Education; Sport for Peace; Science, PE and Me!; and The Science of Healthful Living curricula to demonstrate Ennis’s commitment to curricular development in physical education. In this process, they share with the reader Ennis’s contributions to curriculum development theories, curriculum intervention research, and physical education practices.
Creating Powerful Curricula for Student Learning in Physical Education: Contributions of Catherine D. Ennis
Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang
The Missing Link? Middle School Students’ Procedural Knowledge on Fitness
Tan Zhang, Anqi Deng, and Ang Chen
Purpose: Guided by the declarative−procedural knowledge framework, the study attempts to identify middle school students’ declarative (knowing what) and procedural (knowing how) fitness knowledge and the relationship between the two. Methods: A sample of students (n = 291, age 11–14 years) from 24 middle schools took a grade-relevant standardized knowledge test on declarative fitness knowledge and received a semistructured interview designed to clarify their declarative and procedural knowledge. Results: Most students were lacking in procedural knowledge to conduct fitness-enhancing physical activities. A few students who had mastered declarative fitness knowledge demonstrated a high level of procedural knowledge consistent with personal fitness goals. Discussion: The findings suggest that incapability to engage in fitness-enhancing physical activities could be a result of lacking procedural fitness knowledge. Future school-based interventions may prioritize procedural knowledge learning for actual physical activity participation.
Three-Year Trajectory of Interest in Learning Physical Activity Knowledge: Influences of Gender and Prior Knowledge
Yubing Wang, Tan Zhang, and Ang Chen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the 3-year trajectory of students’ interest in learning physical activity (PA) knowledge during middle school and the effects of gender and prior knowledge on the trajectory. Methods: Using a repeated-measures design, a cohort of 447 sixth-grade students’ interest in learning PA knowledge was measured eight times from the beginning of sixth grade to the end of eighth grade. Students’ prior PA knowledge was measured at the beginning of sixth grade. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that students’ interest in PA knowledge in general declined over time. Girls’ interest declined faster than that of the boys before eighth grade, but their decline slowed during the eighth-grade year. Prior knowledge did not influence the trajectories. Discussion: These findings provide insights regarding students’ interest in learning PA knowledge and indicate that prior knowledge may not be a central component that contributes to interest development.
Recentering Beijing: Sport, Space, and Subjectivities
Tan Zhang and Michael L. Silk
At present, and as China negotiates the instantiation of consumer capitalism, her urban spaces have experienced agonizing growth affecting housing, the internationalization of cities, interactions between government and developers, the development of rural land, migrant flows, and social stratification within the city. Focusing on Beijing, we locate the efforts to host major sporting events—especially the 1990 Asian Games and the 2008 Olympic Games—within the dynamics of the spatial reconfigurations in Beijing, a rapid reordering based on “capital space” (Harvey, 2001), gentrification, and the lifestyle practices of a burgeoning middle and upper class of Beijingers. In so doing, we offer a multidimensional account of the complex manner in which power, mobility, and transformation within a modernizing Beijing intersects with the discursive constitution of bodies, concluding with regard to new forms of social cleavages and inequalities that derive from embracing, however selectively, the logistics of the market in the framework set by the Chinese nation-state.
Learning to Teach Again: What Professional Development Approach Matters?
Anqi Deng, Tan Zhang, Yubing Wang, and Ang Chen
Purpose: Informed by the constructivist learning theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of three continuing professional development (CPD) approaches on student learning in a healthful living physical education curriculum. Methods: Physical education teachers (n = 19) received one of the following CPD trainings: (a) Full Training, (b) Expedited Training, or (c) Self-Training. The effect of each CPD method was determined by tracking student learning (N = 3,418) with a two-level linear mixed model. Results: The results showed that Full Training CPD was able to generate the largest knowledge gain in both the Healthy Lifestyles Unit (β = 0.214, p < .001) and Cardio Fitness Club Unit (β = 0.184, p < .01) in comparison with the other two CPD approaches. Discussion: These findings advance our understanding of the role different CPD approaches play in enhancing student learning in the subjects of cardiorespiratory fitness and health lifestyles. Conclusions: The Full-Training CPD appears to benefit student learning the most followed by the Expedited-Training. The Self-Training would yield the least learning achievement.
Impact of Teacher Value Orientations on Student Learning in Physical Education
Ang Chen, Tan Zhang, Stephanie L. Wells, Ray Schweighardt, and Catherine D. Ennis
Based on the value orientation theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of value orientation incongruence between physical education teachers and an externally designed curriculum on student learning in a concept-based fitness-centered physical education curriculum. Physical education teachers (n = 15) with different value orientations taught an externally designed, standards-based fitness/healthful living curriculum to their middle school students (n = 3,827) in 155 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade intact classes. A pre-post assessment design was used to determine whether student fitness/healthful living knowledge gains differed in terms of teachers’ value orientations. An ANOVA on class means of residual-adjusted knowledge gain scores revealed no statistically significant differences based on value orientations. The evidence suggests that teacher value orientation impact may be mediated by curriculum impact. This finding supports the observation that a well-designed physical education curriculum may minimize the impact of teachers’ diverse value orientations on the curriculum implementation and student learning.