This study aimed to understand how positive youth development through sport and physical activity is understood and experienced by urban indigenous youth. Research in positive youth development claims that structured physical activities are critical for development. The 5 Cs (i.e., confidence, competence, character, connection, caring) are a gold standard when discussing positive outcomes and are important characteristics for youth to possess to attain the sixth C—contribution. Indigenous leaders recognize the value of sport for indigenous children and youth. Recent works in sport psychology have called for research to understand youth sport and physical activity from diverse cultural perspectives. The current study used a community-based participatory framework, and 43 youth from across 3 Canadian settings were recruited. Talking circles were used to collect the data. Results point to some unique understandings of the 5 Cs by the participants—namely, the inclusion of the self within each C.
Leisha Strachan, Tara-Leigh McHugh, and Courtney Mason
Jennifer L. Kentel and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh
Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying.Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women’s experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews.Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.
Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden, and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh
The purpose of this research was to describe and interpret the positive body image experiences of women actively engaged in pole fitness. A total of seven women between the ages of 20 and 36 years participated in semistructured one-on-one interviews and follow-up interviews. Participant observation was also used to generate data. Data were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, and the positive body image experiences of women are represented by five themes: (a) observation and exposure fostering body acceptance, (b) performance promoting self-confidence, (c) personal growth and sexual expression, (d) unconditional community support creates comfort, and (e) body appreciation through physical skill development. Findings suggest that women engaging in pole fitness may experience positive body image, and the words of participants provide insight into the components of pole fitness that may foster positive body image. Pole fitness may provide a unique exercise context whereby women can develop and maintain positive body image.
Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Nicholas L. Holt
The overall purpose of this study was to examine coaches’ views on deselecting athletes from competitive female adolescent sport teams. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 head coaches of Canadian provincial level soccer, basketball, volleyball, and ice hockey teams. Interpretive description methodology (Thorne, 2008) was used. Results revealed deselection was a process that involved four phases: pre-tryout meeting, evaluation and decision-making, communication of deselection, and post deselection reflections. Within the evaluation and decision-making phase coaches made programmed and nonprogrammed decisions under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty coaches relied on intuition.
Jodie A. Stearns, Paul J. Veugelers, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Chris Sprysak, and John C. Spence
Background: Potential income disparities were examined in the (1) awareness and uptake of the Children’s Fitness Tax Credit (CFTC), and (2) physical activity (PA) of children from families who did and did not claim the credit in Alberta, Canada in 2012 and 2014. Methods: Secondary analyses of 3 cross-sectional data sets of grade 5 students (10–11 y) were performed, including Alberta Project Promoting healthy Living for Everyone Schools 2012 (N = 1037), and Raising healthy Eating and Active Living Kids Alberta 2012 (N = 2676), and 2014 (N = 3125). Parents reported whether they claimed the CFTC in the previous year, their education and household income, and their child’s gender and PA. Children self-reported their PA from the previous 7 days. In Alberta Project Promoting healthy Living for Everyone Schools, children also wore pedometers. Analyses adjusted for clustering within schools and demographic factors. Results: Higher income families (≥$50,000/y) were more likely to be aware of and to have claimed the CFTC compared with low-income families (<$50,000/y). The CFTC was associated with organized PA with larger associations for higher-income families (odds ratio = 9.03–9.32, Ps < .001) compared with lower-income families (odds ratio = 3.27–4.05, Ps < .01). No associations existed for overall PA or pedometer steps with the CFTC. Conclusions: Income disparities exist in the awareness, uptake, and potential impact of the CFTC. Tax credits are not effective in promoting overall PA.
Heather K. Larson, Bradley W. Young, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Wendy M. Rodgers
Empirical evidence directly associating early sport specialization with burnout and dropout is lacking, although a relationship is theorized. Research in this area relies on time-intensive retrospective interviews or questionnaires that generate large amounts of data. The optimal use of these data for assessing early specialization (ES) and its relationship with key criterion variables is unclear. The purpose of this study was to add empirical evidence to the literature regarding ES, burnout, and dropout. This involved examining a large number of hypothesized markers of ES and reducing them to a smaller set useful for predicting burnout and dropout. Survey data were collected from 137 swimmers, age 12–13 years, and their parents, including descriptions of swimmers’ sport backgrounds from age 6 until present. Contrary to what was expected, the ES items were not positively related to burnout and dropout. The authors present several possible explanations, including key motivational considerations.
Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Nicholas L. Holt
The purpose of this study was to explore female athletes’ experiences of positive growth following deselection from provincial sport teams. Interviews were conducted with 18 women (M age = 22.45 years, SD = 1.38) who were deselected from provincial soccer, ice hockey, and volleyball teams as adolescents. Interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology was used. The analysis was guided by Tedeschi and Calhoun’s model of posttraumatic growth. Results showed that participants questioned their identity and ability as athletes following deselection. Growth was a gradual process that unfolded over several years, experienced through a greater appreciation of the role of sport in the participants’ lives and sport becoming a priority, an enhanced sense of personal strength, developing closer social relationships, and a recognition of new and other opportunities. These findings show that cognitive processes and social relationships are critical components in the process of positive growth.