Our aim with the current study was to compare upper extremity and cue kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activation of shoulder muscles during novus (a special form of billiards) shots of different difficulty levels. Ten proficient and 10 less-skilled novus players performed 3 types of novus shots (penalties, cuts, rebounds) 10 times each. During each shot, elbow flexion and cue–forearm angles (using a movement analysis system), and surface EMG activity of the trapezius, posterior, and lateral deltoid muscles of each subject’s dominant side, were measured. Data were compared between more- and less-skilled players, and successful compared with unsuccessful shots. Elbow flexion angle among the more-skilled players was 24.5% larger (P < .001) during unsuccessful cut shots than successful ones. The more-skilled players performed successful penalty and rebound shots with 26.8% and 49.8% lower (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively) EMG activity of the trapezius muscle than unsuccessful ones. Less-skilled players’ shots were characterized by higher EMG activity in the trapezius muscle. The obtained findings suggest that the more-skilled novus players had acquired a different muscle recruitment pattern than less-skilled players.
Viire Talts, Jaan Ereline, Tatjana Kums, Mati Pääsuke and Helena Gapeyeva
Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.