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Teresa L. Hart, James J. McClain and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Emerging interest in the health impacts of sedentary behaviors has driven the exploration of objective instrumentation capable of capturing these behaviors. The purpose was to compare (under laboratory conditions) outputs from ActiGraph (AG), Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity (IDEEA), and activPAL Professional (AP) against direct observation (DO) in sedentary, standing, and active behaviors; and assess convergent validity of instrument outputs under free-living conditions.

Methods:

Participants (13 males/16 females; 28.9 ± 6.2 years) wore instruments concurrently during laboratory and free-living studies. AG cutpoints of ≤50, <100, and ≤259 counts/minute were used to determine time in sedentary behaviors. Laboratory data were evaluated using mean percent error. Free-living data were analyzed using dependent t tests and RM ANOVA.

Results:

AP precisely measured all identified DO behaviors under laboratory conditions; IDEEA precisely identified sitting and standing. For the free-living study, there was no difference in sedentary time detected by AP and IDEEA but a significant difference was observed in standing time. No difference was apparent between AP and AG259 in sit/lie/stand or ambulatory activity time.

Conclusions:

In a laboratory setting, the utility of all instruments to classify activities into behavioral categories was confirmed. This may enhance research on sedentary behaviors and health-related outcomes.

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James J. McClain, Teresa L. Hart, Renee S. Getz and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

This study evaluated the utility of several lower cost physical activity (PA) assessment instruments for detecting PA volume (steps) and intensity (time in MVPA or activity time) using convergent methods of assessment.

Methods:

Participants included 26 adults (9 male) age 27.3 ± 7.1 years with a BMI of 23.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2. Instruments evaluated included the Omron HJ-151 (OM), New Lifestyles NL-1000 (NL), Walk4Life W4L Pro (W4L), and ActiGraph GT1M (AG). Participants wore all instruments during a laboratory phase, consisting of 10 single minute treadmill walking bouts ranging in speed from 40 to 112 m/min, and immediate following the laboratory phase and during the remainder of their free-living day (11.3 ± 1.5 hours). Previously validated AG MVPA cutpoints were used for comparison with OM, NL, and W4L MVPA or activity time outputs during the laboratory and free-living phase.

Results:

OM and NL produced similar MVPA estimates during free-living to commonly used AG walking cutpoints, and W4L activity time estimates were similar to one AG lifestyle cutpoint evaluated.

Conclusion:

Current findings indicate that the OM, NL, and W4L, ranging in price from $15 to $49, can provide reasonable estimates of free-living MVPA or activity time in comparison with a range of AG walking and lifestyle cutpoints.

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Ann M. Swartz, Sergey Tarima, Nora E. Miller, Teresa L. Hart, Elizabeth K. Grimm, Aubrianne E. Rote and Scott J. Strath

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and body fat (total, abdominal) or body size (body-mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]) in community-dwelling adults 50 yr old and over. This study included 232 ambulatory adults (50–87 yr, 37.4% ± 9.6% body fat [BF]). Average daily time spent in SB (<100 counts/min) and light (100–759 counts/min), lifestyle-moderate (760–1,951 counts/min), walking-moderate (1,952–5,724cts/min), and vigorous-intensity (≥5,725 counts/min) PA were determined by accelerometer and corrected for wear time. BF was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. SB was positively related to measures of BF. Measures of SB, PA, and gender accounted for 55.6% of the variance in total BF, 32.4% of the variance in abdominal fat, and 28.0% of the variance in WC. SB, PA, and age accounted for 27.1% of the variance in BMI. Time spent in SB should be considered when designing obesity interventions for adults 50 yr old and over.

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Teresa L. Hart, Cora Lynn Craig, Joseph M. Griffiths, Christine Cameron, Ross E. Andersen, Adrian Bauman and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

The Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) was a one-time collaborative survey undertaken by Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics.

Methods:

This analysis provides country-, sex-, and age-specific comparative markers of adult obesity and sedentarism, defined as independent and collective groupings of self-reported leisure-time inactivity (<1.5 MET-hours/day), usual occupational sitting, and no/low active transportation (<1 hour/week). Logistic regression assessed the likelihood of sedentarism in U.S. vs. Canada, with and without adjusting for BMI-defined obesity categories: healthy weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25 kg/m2; n = 3542), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; n = 2,651), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; n = 1470).

Results:

Compared with Canadians, U.S. adults are 24% more likely to be overweight/ obese, 59% more likely to be inactive in leisure-time, 19% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 39% more likely to collectively report all sedentarism markers, adjusting for sex and age. Focusing on obese individuals in both countries, obese U.S. residents were 90% more likely to be inactive during leisure-time, 41% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 73% more likely to report all sedentarism markers.

Conclusions:

This ecological analysis sheds light on differential risks of obesity and sedentarism in these neighboring countries.