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Inclusion of Children With Disabilities in Physical Education: A Systematic Review of Literature From 2009 to 2015

Terese Wilhelmsen and Marit Sørensen

This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.

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Motivational Pathways to Social and Pedagogical Inclusion in Physical Education

Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel

This article is focused on how combinations of motivational attributes and motivational climates support social and pedagogical inclusion in physical education among children with disabilities. Theoretically, the authors integrate tenets from achievement-goal theory and self-determination theory. To capture the motivational complexity underlying children’s experiences of inclusion in physical education, they use a 2-step fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis. The analyses of contextual conditions yielded 2 sufficient inclusion-supportive climates, namely a physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate or a physical inclusive, autonomy-supportive, and low performance-oriented climate. The configurations of motivational attributes in the inclusion-supportive climates indicated 4 sufficient pathways to social and pedagogical inclusion. The path with the largest coverage of children was in the physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate and represented children who were task and ego oriented and low on amotivation and experienced satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.