The nutritional status of 11 female and 13 male elite bodybuilders at the first drug-tested USA Championship was examined through food records kept by subjects. Diets were repetitive and monotonous, and average daily energy and protein contents were relatively similar for men and women. Percent calories from protein, fat, and carbohydrate were 39%, 12%, and 48% for females, and 40%, 11%, and 49% for males, respectively. Females consumed 0% vitamin D, 52% calcium, 76% zinc (as percents of RDA) and below the Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietary Allowance amounts for copper and chromium. Males consumed 46% of vitamin D RDA. Although dietary magnesium intakes were above the RDA, serum magnesium levels in females were below reference values, which should be investigated. Serum zinc levels were high in men and women. Eighty-one percent of females reported recurrent contest-related amenorrhea for 2 ± 1 months precontest. Dietary intakes of men were adequate but the restrictive intakes of women may place them at risk for calcium, copper, and chromium deficiencies.
Susan M. Kleiner, Terry L. Bazzarre, and Barbara E. Ainsworth
Terry L. Bazzarre, Susan M. Kleiner, and Barbara E. Ainsworth
This research compared nutrient intake data with blood lipids and anthropometric data. Height, weight, and seven skinfolds were collected 3 days prior to competition at the official weigh-in. The lipids measured were total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol subfractions. The subjects were 17 males and 17 females. Descriptive data are presented as means and standard deviations of the means. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate provided about 40, 12, and 48%, respectively, of total energy intake; vitamin C was >200 mgfday. Only dietary fat was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with TC for females. Fiber was significantly associated with HDL-C and HDL2-C for males and with HDL-C for females. Vitamin C was significantly associated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C for males, and with HDL-C and HDL3-C for females. These findings are consistent with those reported by Bazzarre et al. in farmers and suggest that vitamin C may favorably influence HDL-C metabolism.
Scott D. Murdoch, Terry L. Bazzarre, Ian P. Snider, and Allan H. Goldfarb
This investigation examined the metabolic and performance effects of ingesting solid compared to slurried carbohydrate food (bananas) between two prolonged exhaustive exercise bouts. Eight highly trained bale triathletes performed four exhaustive endurance tests (ET), each separated by at least 2 weeks. Each ET consisted of a 90-min run followed by 90 min of cycling, both at 70%
Ian P. Snider, Terry L. Bazzarre, Scott D. Murdoch, and Allan Goldfarb
This study examined the effects of the Coenzyme Athletic Performance System (CAPS) on endurance performance to exhaustion. CAPS contains 100 mg coenzyme Q10,500 mg cytochrome C, 100 mg inosine, and 200 IU vitamin E. Eleven highly trained male triathletes were given three daily doses of either CAPS or placebo (dicalcium phosphate) for two 4-week periods using a double-blind crossover design. A 4-week washout period separated the two treatment periods. An exhaustive performance test, consisting of 90 minutes of running on a treadmill (70%
Chae-Hee Park, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Marcia G. Ory, Jane Gleason-Senior, Terry L. Bazzarre, and Robin Mockenhaupt
This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the National Blueprint (NB) on the policies, programs, and organizational culture of selected national organizations. The theoretical model selected to assess the impact of the NB on organizational behavior was Burke’s system theory of organizational change. Three organizations, AARP, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the Administration on Aging (AoA), were selected for the study. Two individuals in each of these organizations were selected for interview. Semistructured interviews and document reviews were used in the data-collection process. Findings showed that the publication and establishment of the NB resulted in changes in the operating procedures of AARP, ACSM, and AoA. The results were broadly consistent with Burke’s system theory of organizational change. The publication of the NB was shown to affect the behavior of organizational leaders, organizational culture, policies, programs, and individual and organizational performance. The new information generated has increased our understanding of the impact of health campaigns on organizational behavior.
Barbara Resnick, Marcia G. Ory, Kerrie Hora, Michael E. Rogers, Phillip Page, Jane N. Bolin, Roseann M. Lyle, Cody Sipe, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, and Terry L. Bazzarre
The Exercise Assessment and Screening for You (EASY) is a tool developed to help older individuals, their health care providers, and exercise professionals identify different types of exercise and physical activity regimens that can be tailored to meet the existing health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities of older adults. The EASY tool includes 6 screening questions that were developed based on an expert roundtable and follow-up panel activities. The philosophy behind the EASY is that screening should be a dynamic process in which participants learn to appreciate the importance of engaging in regular exercise, attending to health changes, recognizing a full range of signs and symptoms that might indicate potentially harmful events, and becoming familiar with simple safety tips for initiating and progressively increasing physical activity patterns. Representing a paradigm shift from traditional screening approaches that focus on potential risks of exercising, this tool emphasizes the benefits of exercise and physical activity for all individuals.