This study assessed the attitudes of physical educators (n = 194) toward teaching handicapped pupils in the regular class. The survey instrument used was the Physical Educators Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped (PEATH), which assesses teacher attitudes according to the type of handicapping condition (learning and physical) and grade level (K-3, 4-6, 7-8). A 2 × 3 randomized block factorial design and the Tukey (HSD) post hoc analysis were applied to the data. Results indicated that physical educators held more favorable attitudes toward teaching pupils with learning handicaps than those with physical handicaps. Furthermore, as grade level advanced from primary (K-3) to intermediate (4-6) and upper (7-8) grades, teacher attitudes became progressively less favorable.
Terry L. Rizzo
April Tripp and Terry L. Rizzo
This study assessed the affect of the label (i.e., CP) attached to a description of a child’s motor ability and teacher attributes on the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) on two groups of elementary teachers (label and no-label). Results from a Hotelling = s T2 MANOVA showed a labeling effect. Results from a simple linear regression procedure also showed that of the teacher attributes assessed, only perceived teaching competence (p < .01) predicted favorable intentions. Support for the TpB was demonstrated for the group with the label for the social normative component (p < .000). Further analyses showed that for the group that receive that label information, only the school principal (p < .05) was associated with favorable intentions.
Kevin Casebolt, Terry L. Rizzo and Rebecca Woodard
Edited by Terry Rizzo
Sherry L. Folsom-Meek and Terry L. Rizzo
The purpose of this study was to assess validity and reliability of the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities III (PEATID III; Rizzo, 1993) for future professionals. Participants (N = 3,464) were undergraduate students enrolled in the introductory adapted physical education course at 235 colleges and universities. Construct validity was obtained through principal components analysis with oblique rotation and supported by principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Results showed that PEATID III measures three factors: (a) outcomes of teaching students with disabilities in regular classes, (b) effects on student learning, and (c) need for more academic preparation to teach students with disabilities. Reliability, as estimated through coefficient alpha, was .88 for the total scale and .71 or greater for each of the disability subscales.
Terry L. Rizzo and Don R. Kirkendall
This study assessed the association between demographic attributes (gender, age, year in school, experience with students with disabilities, perceived competence in teaching students with disabilities, and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities) of undergraduate physical education majors and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), and behaviorally disordered (BD). Future physical educators (n = 226) were asked to complete the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped questionnaire, and 174 (77%) agreed. Data were collected on the first day of classes of a 16-week semester. Results from forward stepwise multiple-regression procedures showed that perceived competence and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities were the best predictors of favorable attitudes in general, and for EMR and LD. Results also showed that for BD, age and year in school were the best predictors of favorable attitudes. Thus, attitudes vary as a function of disabling conditions. The results provide evidence that there is a need to promote positive attitudes toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Ellen M. Kowalski and Terry L. Rizzo
This study examined the relationship among selected attributes—gender, level of program (graduate/undergraduate), major, number of infusion-based courses, number of adapted physical education courses, and perceived competence—of physical education students (N = 133) and their attitudes toward teaching/working with individuals with disabilities. Students were enrolled in an infusion-based curriculum at a university in the northeastern United States. Data were collected via a modified version of the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities (PEATID–III) instrument. Results from a stepwise selection, multiple-regression procedure showed that of the six selected student variables assessed, students’ perceived competence in teaching/working with individuals with disabilities was the best predictor of favorable attitudes. Results also showed that the number of infusion-based courses, coursework in adapted physical education, and program major also were significant predictors of favorable attitudes.
Terry L. Rizzo, Paul Bishop and David Tobar
Attitudes and selected attributes of youth soccer coaches (N = 82, 18 women, 63 men, and one person who did not identify his/her gender) toward coaching a player with mild mental retardation (MMR) were assessed by Coaches’ Attitudes Toward Players With Disabilities (CAP-S) survey. Intereorrelations among 11 variables were reported. The highest were r = .72 between belief and attitude, and r = .57 between belief and intention. Results from a stepwise selection multiple regression procedure showed that as perceived soccer coaching competence increased, beliefs about coaching a player with MMR showed greater agreement. Results also indicated that, as perceived soccer coaching competence increased, attitudes and intention toward coaching a player with MMR improved. Perceived soccer coaching competence explained only a small amount of the variance for beliefs, attitudes, and intentions.