Developmentally based theories in the social-psychology field emphasize the important role that significant adults play in relation to children’s psychosocial health and well-being. In particular, these theories suggest that the responses adults provide to children in reaction to their performance attempts may affect the children’s own perceptions and evaluations of their competencies, as well as their overall self-worth. In the youth sport setting, coaches may be the main providers of performance-related feedback. The purpose of this paper was to use current research and theory to identify and discuss 4 dimensions of coaches’ feedback that are relevant to the growth and development of young athletes: content, delivery, degree of growth orientation, and extent of stereotyping. The paper ends with recommendations for future research on the topic, with emphasis on examining developmental transitions and why coaches give feedback in particular ways.
Thelma S. Horn
Perceptions of physical competence and intrinsic joy have been identified as 2 of the primary correlates and even predictors of physical activity and sedentary behavior for individuals of all ages. Developmental theories of competence motivation suggest that such self-perceptions may have their origins in the early childhood years and are formed on the basis of a whole range of social and environmental factors. However, it is likely that the primary influence during this early time period may be the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors of significant adults with whom the child interacts. This paper identifies and discusses 3 ways in which important adults can exert an influence on young children’s perceptions of competence and intrinsic joy and, correspondingly, on their levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. The paper ends with some recommendations for future research.
Thelma S. Horn
One of the primary dilemmas surrounding the topic of early sport specialization is whether the practice develops talent or creates long-term psychological problems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this issue using psychosocial and developmental frameworks. This review begins with an overview of several developmentallybased constructs (e.g., biological maturation, perceived competence, body image, self-identity, motivational orientation) that are relevant to the sport domain. These developmental progressions are then used to address some potential implications for children who begin intensive training and competition at an early age. Next, some socioenvironmental factors are explored, with specific links made to the early sport specialization process. Finally, the paper ends with four recommendations for future research on the topic.
Thelma S. Horn and Maureen R. Weiss
This study examined developmental differences in children’s judgments of their physical competence. Two questionnaires were administered to 134 children, ranging in age from 8 to 13 years, to measure their perceptions of competence and the criteria they use to evaluate that competence. In addition, children’s actual physical competence was assessed through teacher evaluation. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the data revealed three major findings. First, the accuracy with which children judge their competence does increase with age. Second, the criteria children use to assess their competence is also age-dependent, with younger children showing greater preference for adult feedback and older children showing greater preference for peer comparison. Third, the criteria children use in competency judgments was found to be directly related to the accuracy of such judgments. The results of this study demonstrated the existence of developmental patterns with respect to children’s judgments of their physical competence.
Eric M. Martin and Thelma S. Horn
This study examined whether adolescent athletes’ levels of sport burnout would be predicted by their level and type of both passion and athletic identity. Female high-school-aged athletes (N = 186) completed a series of questionnaires to measure study variables. The results of three hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that athletes’ levels of harmonious passion served as negative predictors for all three dimensions of burnout, while obsessive passion positively predicted scores only on the exhaustion subscale. In addition, the subdimensions of athletic identity contributed a unique amount to the prediction of some aspects of burnout. These results indicate that both passion and athletic identity are important correlates or predictors of burnout levels, with harmonious passion offering the most protective effects.
Anthony J. Amorose and Thelma S. Horn
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ intrinsic motivation (IM), gender, scholarship status, perceptions of the number of their teammates receiving scholarships, and perceptions of their coaches’ behavior. Male and female college athletes (N = 386) from a variety of Division I sports completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Multivariate analyses revealed that (a) scholarship athletes reported higher levels of IM than did nonscholarship athletes, (b) male athletes reported higher IM than did female athletes, and (c) perceived coaching behaviors were related to athletes’ IM. Specifically, athletes with higher IM perceived their coaches to exhibit a leadership style that emphasized training and instruction and was high in democratic behavior and low in autocratic behavior. In addition, athletes with higher levels of IM perceived that their coaches provided high frequencies of positive and informationally based feedback and low frequencies of punishment-oriented and ignoring behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive evaluation theory.
Thelma S. Horn, Susan D. Glenn, and Amy B. Wentzell
This study was conducted to test whether there are age and gender differences in the criteria that high school athletes use to evaluate their ability in sport contexts. To test this issue, 435 high school athletes from a variety of sports were administered the Sport Competence information Questionnaire which provides a measure of preference for 10 competence information sources. A 2 × 2 (Gender × Age Level) MANOVA revealed that older adolescents were more apt to use self-comparison/internal information, goal achievement, and sport attraction/enjoyment to judge their sport ability while younger athletes were more dependent on the evaluation of peers. In addition, females scored higher than males on the use of self-comparison/internal information and on evaluative feedback from significant others. In contrast, males scored higher on the use of competitive outcomes and speed/ease of learning to evaluate personal sport competence. The results indicate that high school athletes do vary in the sources of information they use to judge their sport competence, and that gender and age can account for a significant amount of that variation.
Jill M. Dempsey, Jay C. Kimiecik, and Thelma S. Horn
This investigation examined parental influence on children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation via an expectancy-value model that included parents’ behavior, parents’ beliefs about their children’s MVPA, and children’s beliefs about their MVPA. The influence of parents on their children’s MVPA was investigated via questionnaires tapping the belief systems of fourth- and fifth-grade children (n=71) and their parents (n=69). Self-reported MVPA was assessed for parents and children. Correlational analyses demonstrated a number of significant relationships between parents’ belief systems and children’s MVPA behavior and children’s belief systems and their physical activity participation. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, there was no evidence of a positive relationship between parents’ physical activity behavior (role modeling) and children’s physical activity behavior. Parents’ perceptions of their children’s MVPA competence was the only parent belief system variable related to children’s MVPA participation. In addition, children’s task orientation and expectancies significantly predicted their MVPA participation.
Thelma S. Horn, Patrick Bloom, Katie M. Berglund, and Stacie Packard
This study was based on Chelladurai’s (1978, 2001, 2007) Multidimensional Model of Leadership and was designed to determine whether athletes’ preferred coaching behavior would vary as a function of their psychological characteristics. Study participants (N = 195 collegiate athletes) completed questionnaires to assess their sport anxiety (SAS), motivational orientation (SMS), as well as their preferred coaching styles (LSS) and feedback patterns (CFQ). Canonical correlation procedures revealed that athletes who were high in self-determined forms of motivation and in somatic trait anxiety preferred coaches who exhibited a democratic leadership style and who provided high amounts of training, social support, and positive and informational feedback while athletes who were high in amotivation indicated a preference for coaches who exhibited an autocratic style and who provided high amounts of punishment-oriented feedback. In addition, high cognitive sport anxiety was linked to greater preference for high frequencies of positive and informational feedback and lower preference for punishment-oriented feedback.