This study examined athlete burnout from a commitment perspective, which suggests that athletes can be involved in sport for a combination of reasons related to sport attraction (want to be involved) and sport entrapment (have to be involved). According to this framework, athletes are likely to experience burnout if they are involved in sport primarily for entrapment-related reasons. Female and male age-group swimmers (N = 236) completed a questionnaire that assessed theoretical determinants of commitment and burnout (emotional/ physical exhaustion, swim devaluation, and reduced swim accomplishment). Cluster analysis was used to partition swimmers into profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment. Subsequent analyses of variance compared emergent cluster groups on burnout. Results revealed that athletes who exhibited characteristics reflecting sport entrapment generally demonstrated higher burnout scores than athletes who were primarily involved in sport for attraction-related reasons. These results provided support for a commitment perspective as a viable framework for understanding athlete burnout.
Is Athlete Burnout More than Just Stress? A Sport Commitment Perspective
Thomas D. Raedeke
Felt Arousal, Thoughts/Feelings, and Ski Performance
Thomas D. Raedeke and Gary L. Stein
This study examined the relationship between felt arousal, thoughts/feelings, and ski performance based on recent arousal and affect conceptualizations. An eclectic integration of these perspectives suggests that to understand the arousal-performance relationship, researchers need to examine not only a felt arousal continuum (i.e., intensity or level ranging from low to high), but also a concomitant thoughts and feelings continuum (i.e., ranging from positive to negative). Recreational slalom ski racers completed a self-report measure examining felt arousal and thoughts/feelings prior to several ski runs. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between felt arousal level, thoughts/feelings, and subjective ski performance ratings, but not for actual ski times. In contrast to the inverted-U hypothesis for subjective performance ratings, high felt arousal is not associated with poor performance ratings if it is accompanied by positive thoughts and feelings.
Coping Resources and Athlete Burnout: An Examination of Stress Mediated and Moderation Hypotheses
Thomas D. Raedeke and Alan L. Smith
Although it is widely accepted that coping resources theoretically influence the stress-burnout relationship, it is unclear whether key internal (i.e., coping behaviors) and external (i.e., social support satisfaction) coping resources have stress-mediated or moderating influences on athlete burnout. Therefore we examined whether coping behaviors and social support satisfaction (a) had indirect stress-mediated relationships with burnout or (b) disjunctively (independently) or conjunctively (in combination) moderated the relationship between perceived stress and burnout. Senior level age-group swimmers (N = 244; ages 14–19 years) completed a questionnaire assessing burnout, perceived stress, general coping behaviors, and social support satisfaction. The results revealed that perceived stress, general coping behaviors, and social support satisfaction were related to burnout. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that general coping behaviors and social support satisfaction had stress-mediated relationships with overall burnout levels. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses failed to support the disjunctive and conjunctive moderation hypotheses. Results thus support stress-mediated perspectives forwarded in previous research.
Development and Preliminary Validation of an Athlete Burnout Measure
Thomas D. Raedeke and Alan L. Smith
The purpose of this research was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of athlete burnout. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis revealed burn-out dimensions reflective of emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of swimming accomplishment, and swimming devaluation. In two subsequent studies, the psychometric properties of a refined version of this measure were examined. Independent samples of senior age-group swimmers and college athletes from a variety of sports completed a questionnaire that tapped the three burnout dimensions as well as stress- and motivation-related variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and alternative model testing supported the specified three-factor burnout model. In support of construct validity, the burnout subscales correlated positively with stress, trait anxiety, and amotivation, and correlated negatively with coping, social support, enjoyment, commitment, and intrinsic motivation indices across the two studies.
Perfectionism and Self-Perception Profile Comparisons on Burnout and Life Satisfaction in Aesthetic Performers
Thomas D. Raedeke, Victoria Blom, and Göran Kenttä
This study evaluated the relationship of perfectionism and self-perceptions with burnout and life satisfaction in aesthetic performers (N = 254) recruited in Sweden. Cluster analysis revealed four groups: perfectionistic with maladaptive self-perceptions, perfectionistic (parent-driven) with maladaptive self-perceptions, achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions, and nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions. Performers in both maladaptive clusters reported characteristics suggesting they were perfectionistic compared to their peers. They also reported relatively high contingent self-worth and low basic self-esteem. In contrast, those in the nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions cluster scored relatively low on perfectionism and reported relatively high basic self-esteem and low contingent self-worth. The performers in the achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions cluster reported average scores across most variables, moderately high personal standards, and higher basic self-esteem compared with contingent self-worth. Overall, performers in both maladaptive clusters reported the highest burnout and lowest life satisfaction. Study findings underscore the importance of perfectionism and self-perceptions when considering burnout and life satisfaction.
Why Coaches Experience Burnout: A Commitment Perspective
Thomas D. Raedeke, Tracy L. Granzyk, and Anne Warren
This study examined coaching burnout from a commitment perspective that highlights the link between burnout and feelings of entrapment. Theoretically, entrapment occurs when coaches become less attracted to coaching but feel they have to maintain their involvement because (a) they perceive a lack of attractive alternatives to coaching, (b) they believe they have too much invested to quit, or (c) they think others expect them to continue coaching. For this study, 295 age-group swim coaches completed a survey that included scales to assess the theoretical determinants of commitment, the exhaustion component of burnout, and commitment itself. Data analyses involved a 2-step approach. (Initially, cluster analysis results revealed 3 clusters of coaches with characteristics reflecting profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment.) Subsequently, MANOVA revealed significant differences between the 3 clusters on exhaustion and commitment. Coaches with characteristics of entrapment reported significantly higher exhaustion than the other groups and near average commitment scores.
Investigating the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Internal Structure and External Validity Evidence for a Potential Measurement Model
David A. Rowe, Thomas D. Raedeke, Lenny D. Wiersma, and Matthew T. Mahar
The purpose of the study was to investigate the measurement properties of questionnaires associated with the Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model. Data were collected from 296 children in Grades 5–8 using several existing questionnaires corresponding to YPAP model components, a physical activity questionnaire, and 6 consecutive days of pedometer data. Internal validity of the questionnaires was tested using confirmatory factor analyses, and external validity was investigated via correlations with physical activity and body composition. Initial model fit of the questionnaires ranged from poor to very good. After item removal, all scales demonstrated good fit. Correlations with percentage body fat and objectively measured physical activity were low but in the theoretically predicted direction. The current study provides good internal validity evidence and acceptable external validity evidence for a brief set of questionnaire items to investigate the theoretical basis for the YPAP model.
Measuring Physical Activity in Children with Pedometers: Reliability, Reactivity, and Replacement of Missing Data
David A. Rowe, Matthew T. Mahar, Thomas D. Raedeke, and Joanna Lore
The study was undertaken to evaluate (a) the reliability of pedometer data and reactivity of children to wearing a pedometer, (b) the effectiveness of a missing data replacement procedure, and (c) the validity of the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Six days of pedometer data were collected from 299 middle-school children, followed by administration of the LTEQ. Six days of pedometer data were found to be adequately reliable for research into habitual physical activity (R xx = .79) and no reactivity occurred. Inclusion of weekday and weekend scores is recommended where possible. The individual-centered data-replacement procedure did not adversely affect reliability, so this data-replacement method offers great promise to physical activity researchers who wish to maintain statistical power in their studies. The LTEQ does not appear to measure physical activity similarly to pedometers (r = .05), and researchers should use the LTEQ with caution in children until further research explains this discrepancy.
Affective and Self-Efficacy Responses to Acute Aerobic Exercise in Sedentary Older and Younger Adults
Brian C. Focht, Deborah J. Knapp, Timothy P. Gavin, Thomas D. Raedeke, and Robert C. Hickner
This study examined the psychological responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise in sedentary older and younger adults. Eighteen young (mean age 24 years) and 15 older adults (mean age 64 years) completed a 20-min bout of stationary cycling at 65% of VO2peak. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and immediately after exercise. Participants’ exercise self-efficacy beliefs were assessed before and immediately after exercise. Both groups reported reduced pleasant feeling states and self-efficacy and increased physical exhaustion in response to acute exercise. Older adults also demonstrated a significant decrease in revitalization during and after cycling. Correlation analyses revealed that self-efficacy was related to feelings of fatigue during exercise and postexercise feelings of energy and fatigue. Both groups reported negative shifts in affect and self-efficacy during and 5 min after cycling. Acute affective and self-efficacy responses might influence one’s motivation to adopt and maintain regular physical activity. The relationship between these acute responses and physical activity behavior across the life span warrants future inquiry.
Perspectives on the Future of Burnout in Sport
Daniel J. Madigan, Henrik Gustafsson, Andrew P. Hill, Kathleen T. Mellano, Christine E. Pacewicz, Thomas D. Raedeke, and Alan L. Smith
The present editorial provides a series of perspectives on the future of burnout in sport. Specifically, for the first time, seven burnout researchers have offered their opinions and suggestions for how, as a field, we can progress our understanding of this important topic. A broad range of ideas are discussed, including the relevance of the social context, the value of theory and collaboration, and the use of public health frameworks in future work. It is hoped that these perspectives will help stimulate debate, reinforce and renew priorities, and guide research in this area over the coming years.