Recent retrospective research has identified effective meso-level thoughts and behaviors for high level golfers (i.e., those deployed between shots and holes). However, how such thoughts and behaviors are actually used during this phase of performance and, or if, they vary in different contexts is unknown. Accordingly, real-time observations followed by stimulated recall interviews were used to examine the meso-level processes used by high-level golfers during competition. Results indicated use of the same pre2- and post-shot routines identified in prior retrospective research but with key differences in the content and application of some of their stages relative to shot outcome. These similarities and differences are discussed along with implications for practitioners: including the importance of developing metacognitive skills, and prioritizing the development of performance expertise over performance competencies for high-level golfers at the meso-level of performance.
This Really IS What We Do With the Rest of the Day! Checking and Clarifying What High-Level Golfers Do During the Meso-Levels of Performance
Thomas Davies, Andrew Cruickshank, and Dave Collins
This is What We Do With the Rest of the Day! Exploring the Macro and Meso Levels of Elite Golf Performance
Thomas Davies, Dave Collins, and Andrew Cruickshank
Despite substantial research in golf on preshot routines, our understanding of what elite golfers are or potentially should be focusing on beyond this phase of performance is limited. Accordingly, interviews were conducted with elite-level golfers and support practitioners to explore what golfers are and should be attending to before competition and between shots and holes. Results pointed to a number of important and novel processes for use at macro (i.e., precompetition) and meso (i.e., between shots and holes) levels, including the role of shared mental models across team members.
A Multicenter Study of the Test–Retest Reliability of the Lower Extremity Functional Test
Michael A. Tabor, George J. Davies, Thomas W. Kernozek, Rodney J. Negrete, and Vincent Hudson
Many clinicians use functional-performance tests to determine an athlete’s readiness to resume activity; however, research demonstrating reliability of these tests is limited.
To introduce the Lower Extremity Functional Test (LEFT) and establish it as a reliable assessment tool.
Week 1: Subjects participated in a training session. Week 2: Initial maximal-effort time measurements were recorded. Week 3: Retest time measurements were recorded.
The University of Wisconsin–La Crosse (UW-L) and the University of Central Florida (UCF).
27 subjects from UW-L and 30 from UCF.
Main Outcome Measures:
Time measurements were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
ICC values of .95 and .97 were established at UW-L and UCF, respectively.
The LEFT is a reliable assessment tool.
Steps per Day Measured by Consumer Activity Trackers Worn at the Non-Dominant and Dominant Wrist Relative to a Waist-Worn Pedometer
Charlotte L. Edwardson, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates, and Alex V. Rowlands
Purpose: To compare steps counts recorded by consumer activity trackers when worn on the non-dominant and dominant wrist against a waist-worn pedometer during free-living. Methods: 30 participants wore six consumer wrist-worn physical activity trackers and a pedometer. On day 1, three trackers were worn on the non-dominant wrist (ND) and three on the dominant (D) wrist. On day 2 trackers were worn on the opposite wrist. On both days, a pedometer (New-Lifestyles NL-800) was worn at the waist. Mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and the Bland-Altman method assessed tracker agreement with the pedometer. Repeated measures ANOVA examined whether MAPEs were significantly different between wrist trackers (i.e., brand comparison) and between wrist location (i.e., non-dominant vs. dominant). Results: MAPEs were higher for the D wrist trackers. Five out of six trackers on the D wrist over-counted, while four out of six trackers on the ND wrist under-counted. MAPE errors were significant (p ≤ .001) between trackers but not across wrist location (p > .05). Fitbit Flex_ND, Mi Band_ND and D, Garmin Vivofit3_D and Jawbone UP24_D had a mean bias of <500 steps. 95% limits of agreement were narrowest for Mi Band_ND. Conclusions: Tracker agreement with the waist-worn pedometer varied widely but trackers on the ND wrist had better agreement. The Mi Band was the most comparable to the pedometer.
Relationship of Fitness, Fatness, and Coronary-Heart-Disease Risk Factors in 12- to 13-Year-Olds
Non-Eleri Thomas, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Simon P. Williams, Julien S. Baker, and Bruce Davies
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between aerobic fitness (AF), fatness, and coronary-heart-disease (CHD) risk factors in 12- to 13-year-olds. The data were obtained from 208 schoolchildren (100 boys; 108 girls) ages 12.9 ± 0.3 years. Measurements included AF, indices of obesity, blood pressure, blood lipids and lipoproteins, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein. An inverse relationship was found between AF and fatness (p < .05). Fatness was related to a greater number of CHD risk factors than fitness was (p < .05). Further analysis revealed fatness to be an independent predictor of triglyceride and blood-pressure levels (p < .05). Our findings indicate that, for young people, fatness rather than fitness is independently related to CHD risk factors.
The Effects of Training the Humeral Rotators on Arm Elevation in the Scapular Plane
Chris J Durall, George J Davies, Thomas W Kernozek, Mark H Gibson, Dennis CW Fater, and J Scott Straker
It has been hypothesized that the fibers of the infraspinatus and subscapularis superior to the glenohumeral axis of rotation contribute directly to arm elevation.
To test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of 5 weeks of concentric isokinetic humeral-rotator training in a modified neutral position on scapular-plane arm-elevation peak torque.
Prospective, pretest/posttest with control group.
24 female and 6 male noninjured college students (N = 30).
Main Outcome Measures:
Scapular-plane-elevation peak torque at 60, 180, and 300°/s.
Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated no difference in peak torque between groups at any of the angular velocities tested (P < .05)
5 weeks of concentric isokinetic humeral-rotator training did not significantly increase scapular-plane-elevation peak torque.