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Physical Attractiveness: Effects on Teacher Expectations and Dyadic Interactions in Elementary Age Children

Thomas J. Martinek

This study describes the effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations and specific teacher-student interactions. Two physical education specialists and their classes served as subjects for the study. Graduate students (n = 30) were asked to rate 141 second, fourth, and sixth grade children from a black and white photo taken of each child. A total of 100 students, from the upper and lower thirds in each grade for both teachers, comprised the sample. Teacher expectations were determined by asking the teachers to rate students according to how they expected each to perform in terms of: (a) physical performance, (b) social relations with peers, (c) cooperative behavior in class, and (d) ability to reason. A dyadic version of Cheffers Adaptation to Flanders Interaction Analysis System was the observational tool used to describe the teacher-student behaviors. Two 2 × 2 × 3 MANOVAs showed that high attractive students were expected to do better in physical performance and to be more socially integrative with peers than low attractive groups. In addition, high attractive students in the sixth grade received more acceptance of their ideas from their teachers.

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Children’s Perceptions of Teaching Behaviors: An Attributional Model for Explaining Teacher Expectancy Effects

Thomas J. Martinek

There is considerable variability among students in the way they are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance. The present article describes a model from which this variability can be partially explained. The model basically describes a series of mediating events that include (a) students’ perceptions of their teachers’ behaviors directed to them, (b) the students’ interpretation of the perceived teaching behaviors, and (c) the effects of the students’ interpretation of the teachers’ actions on their performance and/or behavior. Special attention will focus on the types of attributions students make when explaining the social interactions that transpire between them and their teacher during instruction. It is hoped that this article will increase the clarity of the Pygmalion phenomenon and provide some guidelines for future research in this area.

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The Integration of Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children in Elementary Physical Education

William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek

This paper describes physical education research completed in a university-based laboratory over a 2-year period. The purpose of various laboratory projects was to study the complexities associated when integrating handicapped with nonhandicapped children. All of the work was focused on children in the kindgerten through third grades. Variables studied were motor performance, self-concept, teacher expectations, student effort (how hard a student tried during class), age, and social climates (competitive and noncompetitive atmospheres). Implications for teachers of physical education are drawn from investigation results.

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Problems in Mainstreaming Research: Some Personal Observations

William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek

Many issues must be resolved before research on mainstreaming in physical education becomes believable, replicable, and generalizable. Decisions are necessary regarding the standardization of procedures that place atypical students in the mainstream, and clear definitions are needed regarding what constitutes a handicapped student in physical education. Also, agreement is needed on what typifies the makeup of a regular physical education program that serves handicapped students. Additionally, physical education class content and context differs between classes in the same school, making controlled studies nearly impossible to achieve. It is very difficult to select test instruments that are appropriate to both handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Finally, data analysis is a problem because of the unequal numbers of handicapped and nonhandicapped students found in mainstream physical education classes.

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The Effects of Noncompetitive and Competitive Instructional Climates on Teacher Expectancy Effects in Elementary Physical Education Classes

Thomas J. Martinek and William B. Karper

The purpose of this study was to describe the operation of teacher expectancy effects within two instructional climates of elementary physical education classes. Specifically, high and low expectancy groups were compared during noncompetitive and competitive instruction in terms of teacher-student interaction and perceived expression of effort. Four alternating experimental phases of instruction were employed. Analysis of the interaction data revealed that low expectancy students received significantly more praise and encouragement during the first (noncompetitive) phase and the fourth (competitive) phase than did high expectancy students. They also received significantly more empathy from their teachers during both competitive phases of instruction. High expectancy students were perceived to exhibit significantly more effort than low expectancy students during all four phases.

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Learned Helplessness: A Case Study of a Middle School Student

Mary D. Walling and Thomas J. Martinek

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A Microcomputer Program for Real Time Collection and Immediate Analysis of Observational Data

Charles F. Cicciarella and Thomas J. Martinek

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Chapter 1: An Introduction to Models for Collaboration

Thomas J. Martinek and Paul G. Schempp

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Chapter 7: Collaborative Research in Physical Education

Paul G. Schempp and Thomas J. Martinek

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Chapter 8: An Application of an Action Research Model for Changing Instructional Practice

Thomas J. Martinek and Karen Butt