There is considerable variability among students in the way they are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance. The present article describes a model from which this variability can be partially explained. The model basically describes a series of mediating events that include (a) students’ perceptions of their teachers’ behaviors directed to them, (b) the students’ interpretation of the perceived teaching behaviors, and (c) the effects of the students’ interpretation of the teachers’ actions on their performance and/or behavior. Special attention will focus on the types of attributions students make when explaining the social interactions that transpire between them and their teacher during instruction. It is hoped that this article will increase the clarity of the Pygmalion phenomenon and provide some guidelines for future research in this area.
Thomas J. Martinek
This study describes the effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations and specific teacher-student interactions. Two physical education specialists and their classes served as subjects for the study. Graduate students (n = 30) were asked to rate 141 second, fourth, and sixth grade children from a black and white photo taken of each child. A total of 100 students, from the upper and lower thirds in each grade for both teachers, comprised the sample. Teacher expectations were determined by asking the teachers to rate students according to how they expected each to perform in terms of: (a) physical performance, (b) social relations with peers, (c) cooperative behavior in class, and (d) ability to reason. A dyadic version of Cheffers Adaptation to Flanders Interaction Analysis System was the observational tool used to describe the teacher-student behaviors. Two 2 × 2 × 3 MANOVAs showed that high attractive students were expected to do better in physical performance and to be more socially integrative with peers than low attractive groups. In addition, high attractive students in the sixth grade received more acceptance of their ideas from their teachers.
Thomas J. Martinek and Karen Butt
Regina Markland and Thomas J. Martinek
This study examined the nature and amount of feedback that more successful and less successful high school varsity volleyball coaches gave to their starting and nonstarting volleyball players. Two of the four coaches studied were considered more successful and two were considered less successful, based on previous regular season win-loss percentages. Players of all the coaches (N=41) were also used as subjects and identified as having either a starting or nonstarting role on the team. All subjects were observed on three occasions for 30 minutes per observation during regular season practice. The Cole Descriptive Analysis System (Cole-DAS) was used to observe coach augmented feedback as it was given to individual players in response to skilled performance. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance was used to describe the effects of (a) success of the coach, (b) role of the player, and (c) both success of the coach and role of the player on the dependent variables of coach augmented feedback. Results indicated that successful coaches varied considerably from less successful coaches in the types of feedback given to their players. Starting players were also found to receive significantly more audio, audiovisual, and immediate terminal feedback than nonstarting players.
Charles F. Cicciarella and Thomas J. Martinek
Thomas J. Martinek and Paul G. Schempp
Paul G. Schempp and Thomas J. Martinek
William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek
Many issues must be resolved before research on mainstreaming in physical education becomes believable, replicable, and generalizable. Decisions are necessary regarding the standardization of procedures that place atypical students in the mainstream, and clear definitions are needed regarding what constitutes a handicapped student in physical education. Also, agreement is needed on what typifies the makeup of a regular physical education program that serves handicapped students. Additionally, physical education class content and context differs between classes in the same school, making controlled studies nearly impossible to achieve. It is very difficult to select test instruments that are appropriate to both handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Finally, data analysis is a problem because of the unequal numbers of handicapped and nonhandicapped students found in mainstream physical education classes.
Thomas J. Martinek and Joseph B. Griffith III
The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of age on specific psychological and behavioral measures of learned-helpless and mastery-oriented students. The study consisted of two age groups, younger and older, of learned-helplessness and mastery-oriented students. Within each age group, learned-helpless and mastery-oriented students were compared in terms of attributional profiles and levels of task persistence during instruction. Students were asked to view videotapes of their performances, to describe how they thought they did on each task, and to give reasons for their performance. Responses were classified into four attributional categories: (a) ability, (b) effort, (c) task difficulty, and (d) environment or luck. Persistence was also determined by looking at the number of times students would attempt a task. Attributional profiles and task persistence associated with the leamed-helpless condition was more prevalent with the older group than with the younger group.
William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek
This paper describes physical education research completed in a university-based laboratory over a 2-year period. The purpose of various laboratory projects was to study the complexities associated when integrating handicapped with nonhandicapped children. All of the work was focused on children in the kindgerten through third grades. Variables studied were motor performance, self-concept, teacher expectations, student effort (how hard a student tried during class), age, and social climates (competitive and noncompetitive atmospheres). Implications for teachers of physical education are drawn from investigation results.