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  • Author: Thomas R. Wójcicki x
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Katherine S. Hall, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Siobhan M. Phillips and Edward McAuley

Objective:

The current study examined the psychometric properties and validity of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (MOEES) in a sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities.

Methods:

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the hypothesized 3-factor model in 108 older adults (M age 85 yr) residing in continuing-care retirement communities.

Results:

Analyses supported the 3-factor structure of the MOEES reflecting physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations, with a 12-item model providing the best fit. Theorized bivariate associations between outcome expectations and physical activity, self-efficacy, and functional performance were all supported.

Conclusions:

The 12-item version of the MOEES appears to be a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise in this sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities. Further examination of the factor structure and the longitudinal properties of this measure in older adults is warranted.

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Thomas R. Wójcicki, Amanda N. Szabo, Siobhan M. White, Emily L. Mailey, Arthur F. Kramer and Edward McAuley

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a 12-month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. In addition, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health-related and psychosocial outcomes were examined.

Methods:

Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179) were recruited to participate in a 12-month exercise trial examining the association between changes in physical activity and fitness with changes in brain structure and psychological health. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition. Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and 12.

Results:

Involvement in a 12-month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance, however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention. There were no significant associations at the end of the program.

Conclusions:

Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity-related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation.

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Jason Fanning, Elizabeth A. Awick, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Neha Gothe, Sarah Roberts, Diane K. Ehlers, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley

Background:

Previous research supports the efficacy of a 6-month DVD-delivered program for enhancing physical activity (PA) in older adults. In the current study, we examined the degree to which intervention-related increases in PA were maintained after a 6-month, no-contact follow-up.

Methods:

Follow-up assessments of PA via accelerometry and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) were collected in a sample of older adults (N = 238). Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine changes in PA over the course of the follow-up period.

Results:

For accelerometer measured PA, there was a significant time × treatment × age group interaction, F 1,203 =11.319, P = .001, η2 = .053, such that younger (≤70 years) intervention participants maintained high levels of PA across the follow-up period, while PA in older intervention and young control participants declined significantly. Rates of PA in older control participants remained low over the course of the follow-up period. Analyses of GLTEQ scores revealed similar, though less significant patterns.

Conclusions:

DVD-based exercise programs may be effective for maintaining PA in younger members of the older adult population; however, there remains a need to develop better strategies for promoting PA maintenance in older individuals when using home-based designs.

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Emily L. Mailey, Neha P. Gothe, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Amanda N. Szabo, Erin A. Olson, Sean P. Mullen, Jason T. Fanning, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley

The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 3 different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 min) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N = 311, M age = 71.1) wore an accelerometer for 7 d and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20-, 30-, and 60-min interruption periods. Estimates of wear time, derived using each interruption period, were compared with self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 min) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 min) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults.