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  • Author: Thomas Ratliffe x
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James C. Hannon and Thomas Ratliffe

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coed (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two coed classes were split into male and female teams for game play, one class was exclusively female, and one class was exclusively male. Digi-walker pedometers were worn by students to monitor activity levels calculated as steps per minute. High school males, on average, had higher step counts than females in all settings, and Caucasian students were more active, on average, than African American students. There were no differences in activity levels for females between coed and single-gender game-play settings. There was some evidence, however, that in ultimate Frisbee and soccer units, male students in males-only classes were less physically active than were males in coed and split coed classes. Teacher interaction rates and team-sport preferences rather than the gender composition might have contributed to differences in activity levels of the classes.

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Patt Dodds, Judith H. Placek, Sarah Doolittle, Kathy M. Pinkham, Thomas A. Ratliffe and Penelope A. Portman

Within a social-systems framework, this study described teacher/coach recruits’ (TCs) personal attributes, sport-participation social situation backgrounds, being influenced by significant others on occupational choice, and other occupational decision factors. TCs were compared on these variables with recruits into other sport-related occupations (ORs). TCs and ORs shared some similar personal attributes but had different gender proportions and high school academic backgrounds. Both groups had extensive backgrounds in sport, but TCs participated more during high school and college. The two groups’ most influential significant others differed, as did their ranked lists of occupational attractors. Other occupational decision factors (age of decision, firmness of decision, career maps) were similar. These results are explained with reference to social-systems theory.

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Judith H. Placek, Sarah A. Doolittle, Thomas A. Ratliffe, Patt Dodds, Penelope A. Portman and Kathy M. Pinkham

This study described 476 recruits’ physical education backgrounds and beliefs about the purposes for physical education. Beliefs about purposes are formed in part by physical education experiences and are important to examine because they are difficult to change and because they influence students’ receptivity to teacher education. Most recruits recalled programs that focused on traditional team sports, games, and fitness programs, with less emphasis on individual sports and expressive or noncompetitive activities. Few differences by sex, race, or socioeconomic status were found. Recruits’ reported purposes were coded into nine categories; the top purposes were learning skills, named specific activities, and fitness. The discussion focuses on the possibility of the existence of a de facto national curriculum and factors to consider if changes in physical education curriculum are desired.