Purpose: Muscle mass, strength, and power are important factors for performance. To improve these characteristics, periodized resistance training is used. However, there is no consensus regarding the most effective periodization model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of block (BLOCK) vs daily undulating periodization (DUP) on body composition, hypertrophy, strength, performance, and power in adolescent American football players. Methods: A total of 47 subjects participated in this study (mean [SD] age = 17 [0.8] y, strength training experience = 0.93 [0.99] y). Premeasurements and postmeasurements consisted of body mass (BM); fat mass; relative fat mass; fat-free mass (FFM); muscle mass (MM); muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and triceps brachii (TB); 1-repetition-maximum back squat (BS) and bench press (BP); countermovement jump (CMJ); estimated peak power (Wpeak) from vertical jump performance; medicine-ball put (MBP); and 40-yd sprint. Subjects were randomly assigned in either the BLOCK or DUP group prior to the 12-wk intervention period consisting of 3 full-body sessions per week. Results: Both groups displayed significantly higher BM (P < .001), FFM (P < .001), MM (P < .001), RF (P < .001), VL (P < .001), TB (P < .001), BS (P < .001), BP (P < .001), CMJ (P < .001), Wpeak (P < .001), and MBP (P < .001) and significantly lower sprint times (P < .001) after 12 wk of resistance training, with no difference between groups. Conclusions: Resistance training was effective to increase muscle mass, strength, power, and performance in adolescent athletes. BLOCK and DUP affect anthropometric measures and physical performance equally.
Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann and Thorsten Schiffer
Thorsten Schiffer, Anne Möllinger, Billy Sperlich and Daniel Memmert
The application of kinesio tape (KT) to lower-extremity muscles as an ergogenic aid to improve muscle-strength-related parameters such as jumping is controversial.
To test the hypothesis that the application of KT enhances the jumping performance of healthy uninjured elite female track and field athletes.
A double 1-legged jump test was performed before and after the application of blue K-Active tape without traction on the maximally stretched gastrocnemius, hamstrings, rectus femoris, and iliopsoas muscles according to the generally accepted technique.
18 German elite female track and field athletes (age 21 ± 2 y, height 172 ± 4 cm, body mass 62 ± 5 kg, active time in their sport 13 ± 4 y).
Factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA, Bonferroni) revealed no significant differences in jumping performance between the tests (P > .05, d = 0.26).
These findings suggest that the application of KT has no influence on jumping performance in healthy, uninjured female elite athletes. The authors do not recommend the use of KT for the purpose of improving jump performance.