Previous research has offered insight into coaches’ perceptions of various efficacy-enhancing techniques but not athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ techniques. The purpose of the present research was to compare coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy enhancing techniques. Male (n = 29) and female (n = 49) baseball, basketball, softball, and soccer coaches and teams were surveyed from Division II and III collegiate programs. Results found that the strategies that coaches perceived they used most, as well as were the most effective, were instruction-drilling, acting confident themselves, and encouraging positive talk. Athletes had similar perceptions to their coaches regarding coaches’ use and effectiveness of efficacy techniques. However, closer examination revealed coaches’ and athletes’ mean perceptions of these techniques to vary among levels of congruence and incongruence. Exploratory analyses were also conducted on coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions by gender.
Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz
Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Margaret Flores and Robbi Beyer
The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is between 2%-10% of children (Center for Disease Control, 2003). Participation in organized sports is beneficial to children with ADHD by increasing self-esteem, self-efficacy, peer acceptance, and social skills (Armstrong & Drabman, 2004; Bagwell, Brooke, Pelham, and Hoza, 2001). Little research exists as to preparation for youth sport coaches with regard to coaching athletes with ADHD. The study’s purpose was to investigate coaches’ efficacy beliefs for coaching athletes with ADHD. Two hundred nineteen volunteer coaches completed a questionnaire designed to measure their beliefs. The results showed that overall coaches reported fairly high feelings of efficacy for working with athletes with ADHD. However, results also indicated that coaches reporting experience with athletes with ADHD reported higher efficacy for coaching athletes with ADHD than their less experienced peers. Implications for coaching education include the incorporation of behavior management techniques into course content and the creation of ADHD resources such as weblinks and pamphlets.
Megan E. Grimstvedt, Jacqueline Kerr, Sara B. Oswalt, Donovan L. Fogt, Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing and Zenong Yin
This study tested the effectiveness of a stair use promotion strategy in visible and hidden stairwells during intervention and post intervention follow up.
A quasi-experimental study design was used with a 1 week baseline, a 3 week intervention, and post intervention at 2 and 4 weeks in 4 university buildings in San Antonio, Texas with stairwells varying in visibility. Participants were students, faculty, staff, and visitors to the 4 buildings. A total of 8431 observations were made. The intervention incorporated motivational signs with direction to nearby stairwells placed by elevators to promote stair use. Stair and elevator use was directly observed and recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether stair versus elevator use varied by intervention phase and stairwell visibility.
Stair use increased significantly (12% units) during the intervention period and remained above baseline levels during post intervention follow-up. At baseline, visible stairs were 4 times more likely to be used than hidden stairs; however, the increase in stair use during intervention was similar in both types of stairwells.
Motivational and directional signage can significantly increase stair use on a university campus. Furthermore, stairwell visibility is an important aspect of stair use promotion.