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Inge Tuitert, Tim A. Valk, Egbert Otten, Laura Golenia and Raoul M. Bongers

An essential step in uncontrolled manifold analysis is creating a linear model that relates changes in elemental variables to changes in performance variables. Such linear models are usually created by means of an analytical method. However, a multiple regression analysis is also suggested. Whereas the analytical method includes only averages of joint angles, the regression method uses the distribution of all joint angles. We examined whether the latter model is more suitable to describe manual reaching movements. The relation between estimated and measured fingertip-position deviations from the mean of individual trials, the relation between fingertip variability and nongoal-equivalent variability, goal-equivalent variability, and nongoal-equivalent variability indicated that the linear model created with the regression method gives a more accurate description of the reaching data. Therefore, we suggest the usage of the regression method to create the linear model for uncontrolled manifold analysis in tasks that require the approximation of the linear model.