The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of a cooperative learning strategy in physical education on academic learning time, the percentage of correct trials, the total number of trials, and correct trials. A cooperative learning strategy, Performer and Coach Earn Rewards (PACER), was implemented in a sixth-grade physical education class. Four children (two boys and two girls) participated. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to assess the effects of PACER during an 18-day unit of instruction. Functional relationships were demonstrated for the percentage of correct trials for all participants. Interestingly, low-skilled students performed as well as their average- and highly skilled counterparts.
Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett
This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.