Sport sponsorship is frequently described as a strategic activity, and thus, it is influenced by both competitive and institutional forces. Using a sample of 28 Canadian companies, this study explores the influence of competitive and institutional pressures on those individuals who make decisions about their company's sport sponsorship initiatives. The results show that the sponsorship activities of rival companies were influential in a company's sponsorship choices. This was particularly the case in highly concentrated industries. We also show some evidence of a first-mover advantage in sponsorship decision-making but found preemptive strategies to yield little competitive advantage. In addition to these pressures from the competitive environment, institutional pressures from companies in the same geographic area, in the form of mimetic activity, in the form of involvement in social networks, and through the occupational training of the decision makers—all played a role in the choices made about what activities to sponsor.
Tim Berrett and Trevor Slack
Tim Berrett, Trevor Slack and Dave Whitson
Although considerable weight has been placed on the economist's advice in many areas of public policy, it is suggested that this has not been the case in the pricing of sport and leisure facilities and services. This paper provides an overview of the extent to which economic analysis can be used in the pricing of publicly funded sport and leisure facilities and services. It is reasoned that such facilities and services display both public-good attributes and positive externalities. As such, market pricing is an inappropriate allocation mechanism. Some problems associated with the practical application of economic models to determine user fees in publicly owned sport and leisure facilities are highlighted. An overview of some of the current issues in public facility management and allocation is offered, along with suggestions for further research.