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  • Author: Timo A. Lakka x
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Leena Hakola, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Maija Hassinen, Rainer Rauramaa and Timo A. Lakka

Background:

Little is known about factors that modify the effectiveness of exercise interventions in increasing exercise. We aimed to identify moderators of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise intervention in maintaining increased aerobic exercise among older individuals.

Methods:

The participants of a 4-year randomized controlled trial were a population sample of 1410 men and women aged 57 to 78 years. The aerobic exercise group included 185 individuals and the control group included 169 individuals who reported low aerobic exercise at baseline. Maintained increase in aerobic exercise was defined as at least 60-minute increase in moderate-to-heavy aerobic exercise per week from baseline to 2- and 4-year assessments.

Results:

Individuals in the aerobic exercise group were 2.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.9) times more likely to maintain increased aerobic exercise than those in the control group. Individuals aged < 68.5 years but not older individuals succeeded in maintaining increased aerobic exercise in the intervention group (P = .02 for interaction). Individuals who were past smokers (P = .02 for interaction), were working (P = .05 for interaction), or had symptoms of depression (P = .05 for interaction) succeeded better in maintaining increased aerobic exercise in the intervention group than other individuals.

Conclusions:

These findings help in more precise targeting of future exercise interventions among older individuals.

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Katja Borodulin, Tiina Laatikainen, Marjaana Lahti-Koski, Pekka Jousilahti and Timo A. Lakka

Background:

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of age and education with types of leisure-time physical activity in a population sample of Finnish adults.

Methods:

The sample, part of the National FINRISK Study, comprised 1940 men and 2497 women age 25 to 64 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect data on education and leisure-time physical activity. Overall leisure-time physical activity was further divided into conditioning and daily physical activity.

Results:

In men and women, age had an inverse association with conditioning physical activity but not with daily and overall leisure activity. Strong direct associations were found between education and conditioning and overall leisure activity.

Conclusions:

All age groups report fairly similar levels of overall and daily levels of leisure-time physical activity, but the levels differ across educational groups. In health promotion, more emphasis should be targeted to the population groups with lower education.

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Maija Hassinen, Pirjo Komulainen, Timo A. Lakka, Sari B. Väisänen and Rainer Rauramaa

Background:

The epidemic of sedentary lifestyle and obesity increases the risk of disability with aging. We studied the relationships of body composition, physical activity, and muscular fitness with balance and walking ability.

Methods:

Men and women, age 70 to 74 y (n = 146), were randomly selected from the Finnish population register. Body composition [body weight, body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference], physical activity (questionnaire), muscular fitness (hand-grip strength), balance (commonly used field tests), and walking ability (20 m walking test) were assessed.

Results:

BMI (r = –0.287, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = –0.260, P = 0.002), physical activity (r = 0.206, P = 0.013), and hand-grip strength (r = 0.244, P = 0.003) correlated with balance. BMI (r = 0.330, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0.237, P = 0.004), physical activity (r = –0.252, P = 0.002), and hand-grip strength (r = –0.307, P < 0.001) also correlated with walking time.

Conclusions:

Overweight and central obesity as well as low muscular fitness associate with impaired balance and walking ability in the elderly.

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Eero A. Haapala, Juuso Väistö, Aapo Veijalainen, Niina Lintu, Petri Wiklund, Kate Westgate, Ulf Ekelund, Virpi Lindi, Soren Brage and Timo A. Lakka

Purpose:

To investigate the relationships of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) to arterial stiffness in prepubertal children.

Method:

Altogether 136 children (57 boys, 79 girls) aged 6–8-years participated in the study. Stiffness index (SI) was assessed by pulse contour analysis based on photoplethysmography. ST, light PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA were assessed using combined acceleration and heart rate monitoring. We investigated the associations of ST (<1.5METs) and time spent in intensity level of PA above 2–7METs in min/d with SI using linear regression analysis. We studied the optimal duration and intensity of PA to identify children being in the highest quarter of SI using Receiver Operating Characteristics curves.

Results:

Moderate PA, vigorous PA, and cumulative time spent in PA above 3 (β=–0.279, p = .002), 4 (β =–0.341, P<0.001), 5 (β =–0.349, P<0.001), 6 (β =–0.312, P<0.001), and 7 (β =–0.254, p = .005) METs were inversely associated with SI after adjustment for age, sex, and monitor wear time. The cutoffs for identifying children being in the highest quarter of SI <68 min/d for PA exceeding 5 METs and <26 min/d for PA exceeding 6 METs.

Conclusion:

Lower levels of PA exceeding 3–6 METs were related to higher arterial stiffness in children.

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

Purpose: To investigate the associations of directly measured peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) and body fat percentage (BF%) with arterial stiffness and arterial dilatation capacity in children. Methods: Findings are based on 329 children (177 boys and 152 girls) aged 8–11 years. V˙O2peak was assessed by a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean body mass (LM). BF% and LM were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Stiffness index (measure of arterial stiffness) and change in reflection index (ΔRI, measure of arterial dilatation capacity) were assessed by pulse contour analysis. Data were analyzed by linear regression models. Results: V˙O2peak/LM was positively associated with ΔRI in boys adjusted for age and BF% (β = 0.169, P = .03). Further adjustments for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the study group had no effect on this association, but additional adjustment for clinical puberty attenuated it (β = 0.171, P = .07). BF% was inversely related to ΔRI in boys adjusted for age and V˙O2peak/LM (β = −0.171, P = .03). V˙O2peak or BF% was not associated with ΔRI in girls or with stiffness index in either boys or girls. Conclusion: Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness and decreasing adiposity may improve arterial health in childhood, especially among boys.