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Development of the Coaching Issues Survey (CIS)

Betty C. Kelley and Timothy Baghurst

The Coaching Issues Survey (CIS) was developed to measure sport/coaching-specific issues that may produce stress within the coaching role and situation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure with a sample of collegiate basketball coaches. The four separate, but related subscales of Win-Loss, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Athlete-Concerns demonstrated high internal consistency and good stability over time. The CIS was sensitive to gender differences and paralleled differences noted with stress and burnout measures. The CIS was quite predictive of stress appraisal and slightly predictive of burnout, providing evidence for construct validity as a personal/situational variable within the current theoretical conceptualizations of the stress and burnout process. The initial reliability and validity evidence suggests that the CIS can be a valuable measure of potentially problematic issues for coaches, facilitating the investigation of stress and burnout in coaching.

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Shaping Up the Profession: The Importance of Modeling Health and Fitness as Coaches

Timothy Baghurst and Beau James Diehl

A coach’s roles and responsibilities vary depending on situational factors. However, several characteristics of a coach are recognized as important for success irrespective of the coaching level or ability of the athletes. Physical role modeling is a characteristic largely forgotten in the literature and coaching standards, yet can have important positive or negative outcomes in athlete performance and coach credibility and well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present a rationale for including physical role modeling within the tenets of coaching roles and responsibilities. Second, practical suggestions are made to demonstrate how physical role modeling can be presented positively, even when physical abilities are limited.

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Why Women Become Competitive Amateur Bodybuilders

Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish, and George Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.

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Subjective Judging and the Home Advantage in Female Collegiate Division I Gymnastics

Timothy Baghurst and Inza Fort

The purpose of this study was to investigate the home advantage in female collegiate Division I gymnastics by apparatus and determine the performance effect of the Judges’ Assignor System (JAS) introduced in 2005 on each apparatus. Participant teams (N = 15) were selected based on their ranking in the top 25 nationally at the end of each regular season from 2003 to 2007. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed home scores for each apparatus were significantly higher than their respective away scores, with the largest differences occurring in the uneven bars and floor exercise. Additionally, a repeated measures ANOVA to assess the JAS impact on scores revealed that home performances yielded higher scores than away for all apparatus, and scores for all apparatus were lower both at home and away since the introduction of JAS. Results are assessed based on current research, and application for judges and coaches is discussed.

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Stress and Burnout Experienced by Intercollegiate Swimming Head Coaches

Robert T. Pearson, Timothy Baghurst, and Mwarumba Mwavita

The purpose of the present study was to investigate stress and burnout among intercollegiate head swimming coaches in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Participants were 223 coaches working at NCAA institutions who completed the Coaching Issues Survey, which measures potential stressors experienced by coaches using four subscales of Win-Loss, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Athlete-Concerns. Time-Role was the most significant stressor and Win-Loss the lowest. Females reported significantly higher stress levels than their male counterparts, t(197) = −2.87, p = .01, on all subscales. Overall, levels of stress were not significant by NCAA divisions I, II, and III F(2,201) = 1.25, p = .29, suggesting that coaches across all levels experience stress. Findings highlight the importance of monitoring work–life balance across all collegiate athletic divisions and the need to understand why females report higher levels of stress and how this can be improved. Future research should consider how burnout can be avoided through coaching education and training interventions that might aid coaches who perceive their work environment as stressful.

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The Home Advantage: Performance Effects in Female Collegiate Division I Gymnastics

Timothy Baghurst, Inza Fort, and René Cook

The current study investigated the performance effects of competing at home or away venues in female collegiate Division I gymnastics. Teams (N = 15) selected for analyses were ranked in the top 25 nationally at the end of each regular season during the period of 2003 to 2007 with the exclusion of 2005. Each team’s total scores at all regular season home meets over the four years were compiled and compared to their respective away meet total scores. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed home scores to be significantly higher than away scores. Additionally, with the introduction of the Judges’ Assignor System (JAS) in 2005, team scores at home and away were compared before and after its introduction. Team scores were significantly higher at home prior to and following the introduction of JAS. However, performance scores were found to be significantly reduced at both home and away with JAS. The results of this study suggest that teams perform significantly better at home than away. In addition, the findings suggest that JAS has significantly reduced gymnastics scores, yet has not significantly altered the effects of competing away from home. Findings are discussed in light of current research and application for coaches and officials is provided.