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Courtney Coughenour and Timothy J. Bungum

Background:

Neighborhood walkability is being promoted as an important factor in public health efforts to decrease rates of physical inactivity. Single entry communities (SEC), communities with only 1 entrance/exit, may result in an over estimation of walkability. This design makes direct walking routes outside the community nearly impossible and results in increased trip distance. The purpose of this study was to determine if accounting for SECs resulted in a significant difference in street connectivity.

Methods:

Twenty geographically different Las Vegas neighborhoods were chosen and the number of true intersections measured in ArcGIS. Neighborhoods were then assessed for the presence of SECs using google maps, ArcGIS land imagery, and field observation. Intersections inside SECs were removed. A paired t test was used to assess the mean difference of intersection density before and after adjustment.

Results:

There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of true intersections after the adjustment (before mean = 57.8; after mean = 45.7). The eta squared statistic indicates a large effect size (0.3).

Conclusions:

Single entry communities result in an over estimation of street connectivity. If SECs are not accounted for, trip distances will be underestimated and public health efforts to promote walking through walkable neighborhoods may prove less effective.

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Timothy J. Bungum and Murray Vincent

Purposes of this study included the identification of physical activity (PA) levels, and the types of activity, as well as the determination of racial differences in these factors between African-American (AA) (n=626) and White (WH) (n=226) adolescent females.

PA was measured using a one week recall. Approximately 1/2 of WH and 1/3 of AA female adolescents were sufficiently physically active (Blair, 1992) to produce health benefits. Less than twenty-five percent of study participants met a newly established guideline addressing moderate to vigorous PA (Sallis & Patrick, 1994). Younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents.

Accounting for differences in age and socioeconomic status WH females were more active than AA females. African-American and WH females participated in similar types of activity. Walking was the most frequently cited mode of activity.

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Timothy J. Bungum, Merrill Landers, Maria Azzarelli and Sheniz Moonie

Background:

Little is known about correlates of physical activity of Asian and Asian-Pacific Islander Americans (AAPI). Knowledge of these correlates could be useful in promoting physical activity. Purpose: to identify demographic and environmental correlates of physical activity among AAPI.

Methods:

Participants resided in the Las Vegas, Nevada area, and completed a 52-item telephone administered questionnaire that assessed physical activity behavior, environmental supports for physical activity and demographic factors. Environmental factors included the presence of neighborhood sidewalks, park availability, and nearby grocery stores were combined to create the variable “environmental physical activity supports” (EPAS). Neighborhood crime, pleasantness of the neighborhood for walking, and the presence of loose dogs combined to form “neighborhood safety.” Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of physical activity. Potential predictors included age, gender, BMI, employment, educational attainment, neighborhood safety, and EPAS.

Results:

263 respondents completed the survey. With the exception of living near a grocery store, respondents reported residing in neighborhoods that are generally supportive of physical activity. However, EPAS was the sole significant predictor of physical activity behavior (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.06–2.17). Age and educational attainment unexpectedly failed to predict physical activity.

Conclusions:

Supportive physical activity environments associate with physical activity behavior among AAPI.

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Timothy J. Bungum, Melva Thompson-Robinson, Sheniz Moonie and Monica A.F. Lounsbery

Background:

Health behaviors of minority populations, including Hispanics, are important from a public health perspective because this subpopulation is growing and health behaviors of this subgroup are understudied. Physical activity is a component of healthy lifestyles and Hispanics have been shown to be less active than are Caucasians. It will be necessary to know correlates of physical activity to enhance the physical activity of this group. Recently, the importance of environmental and cultural factors has been recognized as correlates of physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

A 52-item telephone survey was employed to assess physical activity and its potential correlates.

Results:

The sample included 175 females and 156 males. Respondent ages ranged from 18 to 82 years (x = 38.39 ± 15.0). Approximately 20% of respondents were assigned to a “higher physical activity” group. Predictors of being in this group were having supportive environments, being acculturated, attending some college, and age.

Conclusions:

Providing environmental supports may be an effective strategy to enhance physical activity levels of adult Hispanics. Older Hispanics, those with lower educational attainments and those of lower acculturation should be targeted for intervention.

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Timothy Bungum, Marsha Dowda, Anne Weston, Stewart G. Trost and Russell R. Pate

This study examined associations between psychosocial factors and physical activity in a group of youth (n = 520). Students completed the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall and a survey of potential determinants of physical activity. Regression analyses of intentions to be physically active revealed that enjoyment and self-efficacy predicted intentions for both males and females. Attitudes predicted moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA), and enjoyment and self-efficacy predicted vigorous activity (VPA) for males. Self-efficacy predicted both MVPA and VPA for females. The findings suggest that intervention programs targeted at youth should include developmentally appropriate activities that are fun and promote physical activity self-efficacy.